History 15 Midterm 2

studied byStudied by 74 People
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1/101

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

New cards
101
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
101 Terms
New cards

Pendleton Civil Service Act

Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.

New cards
New cards

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

This was the spark that started World War I. Was murdered on by a Serbian nationalist while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. Germany urged Austria-Hungary to fight and they went to war against Serbia; all of this due to Serbia wanting to expand

New cards
New cards

Populist Movement

Movement of farmers that wanted high tariffs, government takeover of railroads, and to buy up silver and unsold wheat.

New cards
New cards

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.

New cards
New cards

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Navy officer who wrote "The influence of Sea Power upon History" and created new markets at distant ports and wanted a large merchant marine fleet / powerful navy.

New cards
New cards

The Red Scare

fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life

New cards
New cards

The Philippine Insurrection

before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines.

New cards
New cards

The Bonus March

Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.

New cards
New cards

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

New cards
New cards

The Hundred Days

A series of massive allied offensives which ended World War 1. They pushed the Central Powers back and undid the Germans spring offensive.

New cards
New cards

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."

New cards
New cards

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

New cards
New cards

Trust Buster (Roosevelt)

Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act which sought to break up monopolistic corporations and prevent anti-competitive tactics. was used incorrectly against labor unions at first.

New cards
New cards

Huey Long

As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc

New cards
New cards

The Progressive (Bull Moose) Party

This political party was formed by T. Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.

New cards
New cards

Court Packing

Attempt by FDR to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.

New cards
New cards

Election of 1912

Woodrow Wilson wins! When Theodore Roosevelt broke from the Republicans to form the Bull Moose (AKA "Progressive") Party, he hoped to win back the presidency. His presence split the Republican vote resulting in a win for the Democrat, Wilson.

New cards
New cards

The Waning Presidency

This describes a decrease in the power of the executive branch. It was characterized by scandals such as Johnson's impeachment, Grant's scandals (attempt to influence and manipulate the gold market, the Whiskey Ring), & the Compromise of 1877.

New cards
New cards

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

law that suspended Chinese immigration into America.

New cards
New cards

The spoils system

The winning political party rewards its campaign workers / other supporters by appointing them to governmental posts & other perks.

New cards
New cards

President Garfield's Assassination

The assassin once supported President Garfield but was not given a job afterwards, prompting the murder. Led to the Pendleton Civil Service Act.

New cards
New cards

Grover Cleveland

Democratic president who removed tariffs and audited Veterans Pension money which was being misused.

New cards
New cards

Billion Dollar Congress of 1890

It was criticized as the "Billion Dollar Congress'" for its lavish spending and, for this reason it incited drastic reversals in public support that led to Cleveland's reelection in 1892.

New cards
New cards

The Depression of 1893

Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Led to the Pullman strike.

New cards
New cards

The Pullman Strike of 1894

A staged walkout strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. Was not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Federal troops forced an end to the strike.

New cards
New cards

The Election of 1896

Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896.

New cards
New cards

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

New cards
New cards

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

New cards
New cards

Yellow Journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

New cards
New cards

Muckrakers

Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business

New cards
New cards

The Maine

USS Maine sinks in Cuba, leading to the Spanish-American War. Newspapers blamed it on the Spanish. "A splendid Little War" against spain".

New cards
New cards

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

New cards
New cards

The Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

New cards
New cards

The Social Justice Movement

During the 1890s and after, this movement attracted followers who sought to free people from the often devastating impact of urban life. It focused on the need for housing reform, more stringent child labor regulations, and better working conditions for women.

New cards
New cards

Hull House

Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

New cards
New cards

Temperance Movement

An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption

New cards
New cards

Frances Willard

Became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.

New cards
New cards

Prohibition

A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages

New cards
New cards

The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers

New cards
New cards

Pragmatism

A general revolt against the overly intellectual, somewhat fastidious, and closed systems of idealism in 19th-century philosophy

New cards
New cards

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

New cards
New cards

Louis Brandeis

A Jewish lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.

New cards
New cards

Alice Paul

Head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

New cards
New cards

Carrie Chapman Catt

A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment.

New cards
New cards

16th amendment

Allows the federal government to collect income tax

New cards
New cards

17th amendment

The direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)

New cards
New cards

18th amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

New cards
New cards

19th amendment

Gave women the right to vote

New cards
New cards

Graduated Income Tax

a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income

New cards
New cards

Jim Crow Laws

Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites

New cards
New cards

Plessy v Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

New cards
New cards

W.E.B. Dubois

1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910

New cards
New cards

N.A.A.C.P

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

New cards
New cards

Robert LaFollette

the Wisconsin governor who was a progressive reformer and ran for president.

New cards
New cards

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

New cards
New cards

Initiative, Referendum, Recall

three powers reserved to enable the voters, by petition, to propose or repeal legislation or to remove an elected official from office.

New cards
New cards

Square Deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers

New cards
New cards

Upton Sinclair

author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906 - wrote The Jungle

New cards
New cards

The Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915. Controlled by the United States at the time who collected taxes.

New cards
New cards

Dollar Diplomacy

the use of a country's financial power to extend its international influence.

New cards
New cards

Moral Diplomacy

Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace

New cards
New cards

Triple Entente and Triple Alliance

The triple Entente was an alliance between France, Britain and Russia, the Triple alliance was an alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia

New cards
New cards

Neutrality Policy

not taking sides in wars between other nations

New cards
New cards

Sinking of the Lusitania

Cruise ship that was sunk by German submarines and helped bring the US closer to involvement in WWI. The ship was supposedly transporting weapons.

New cards
New cards

The Election of 1916

Wilson was anti-war Hughes was pro-war. Wilson won by a little more than 3 percent vote.

New cards
New cards

Zimmerman Telegram

A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S. It was intercepted and the code was broken.

New cards
New cards

Jeanette Rankin

First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.

New cards
New cards

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

New cards
New cards

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

New cards
New cards

National War Labor Board

Negotiated disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.

New cards
New cards

The Sedition and Espionage Acts

U.S. laws that made it illegal to criticize the war

New cards
New cards

Schenck v. United States

Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech

New cards
New cards

Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.

New cards
New cards

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917

New cards
New cards

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

New cards
New cards

Harding Scandals

Major incidents of corruption in government that occurred while Harding was president. Most notable, lease of federally owned oil reserve land to private interests in return for bribes.

New cards
New cards

U.S. Economy after the Great War

Business was booming and the US became essentially the most economically powerful nation in the world.

New cards
New cards

The Tulsa Riot

Worse race riot in American history. White mob burned black section of city to the ground. 300 blacks killed, 10,000 homeless.

New cards
New cards

The 1920 U.S. Census

25% drop in number of Americans admitting to having been born in Germany; due to Anti-German crusade -- words of German origin were changed ie. "hamburger" to "liberty sandwich", "sauerkraut" to "liberty cabbage;"

New cards
New cards

Harlem Renaissance

A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

New cards
New cards

Ku Klux Klan

A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.

New cards
New cards

Scopes Monkey Trial

1925 court case in Tennessee that focused on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.

New cards
New cards

Flappers (1920s)

[New] Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.

New cards
New cards

National Origins Act of 1924

A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.

New cards