BIO 281 CH. 9: blood

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Functions of the blood include...

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Biology

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1

Functions of the blood include...

  • transportation of substances

  • protection

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2

hemoglobin

pigment protein that gives red blood cells their characteristic color

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3

Blood turns ____ when hemoglobin binds to __, and turns dark red when it binds to __.

red; dark red

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4

plasma

  • 55% of whole blood

  • H2O, proteins, electrolytes, hormones, and nutrients

  • least dense

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5

buffy coat

  • leukocytes and platelets

  • <1% of whole blood

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6

erythrocytes

  • RBC

  • 45% of whole blood

  • most dense

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7

what is the source of plasma water?

ingested water

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8

what is the source of plasma protein?

the liver

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9

what is the source of blood cells?

bone marrow

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10

What is the life span of RBC?

120 days

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11

Blood prevents blood loss by...

  • plasma proteins and platelets

  • clot formation

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12

Blood prevents infection by...

  • synthesizing/utilizing antibodies

  • complement proteins

  • activating WBC to defend the body against foreign invaders

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13

Leukocytes

  • WBC

  • 0.1% of all blood cells

  • larger than RBC

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14

2 groups of leukocytes

  • granulocytes (contains granules)

  • agranulocytes (lacks granules)

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15

phagocytes

leukocytes that can engulf foreign substances for defense (include neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes)

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16

Monocytes develop into ___ (constantly removes) and travel longer distances to find foreign substances.

macrophages

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17

thrombocytes

(platelets) critical in forming platelet plugs in hemostasis along with fibrinogen, in forming blood clots

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18

albumin

maintains osmotic pressure in blood and body fluids

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19

globulin

protein transporters (ex. steroid hormones)

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20

___ in converted into fibrins in the formation of a blood clot

fibrinogen

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21

very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)

  • high amount of triglyceride

  • transports triglycerides to tissues synthesized in the liver from carbohydrates to adipose cells (bad cholesterol)

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22

low density lipoprotein (LDL)

  • high amount of cholesterol

  • delivers cholesterol to various cells, including liver cells (bad cholesterol)

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23

high density lipoprotein (HDL)

good cholesterol

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24

What are the major events in RBC destruction?

  1. squeezing through the capillaries of active tissue damages red blood cells

  2. macrophages in the liver & spleen phagocytize damaged red blood cells

  3. hemoglobin from the red blood cells is decomposed into heme and globin

  4. heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin (bile pigment)

  5. iron is made available for reuse in the synthesis of new hemoglobin or is stored in the liver as ferritin

  6. some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin

  7. biliverdin and bilirubin are excreted in bile as bile pigments

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25

hemostasis

the stoppage of bleeding

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26

hemostasis extrinsic clotting mechanism

triggered when blood contacts damaged tissues

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27

intrinsic clotting mechanism

triggered when blood contacts a foreign surface

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28

name 4 clotting factors

  1. fibrinogen

  2. prothrombin

  3. tissue thromboplastin

  4. calcium

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29

what are the 4 possible blood types in ABO blood grouping system

  • type A

  • type B

  • type AB

  • type O

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30

The universal donor is ____

type 0

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31

The universal recipeint is ___

type AB

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