Exam 3 Study Questions

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Total calorie requirement equation

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Nutrition

Chapters 8-13

73 Terms

1

Total calorie requirement equation

BMR in calories + calories spend on activity

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2

Estimate BMR equation

weight in pounds x 10 for women or 11 for men = BMR in calories

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3

Estimate calories according to usual activity level equation

BMR in calories x 20% sedentary, 30% light activity, 40% moderate activity, 50% high activity = calories spent on activity

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4

Evaluate BMI equation

weight (kg) / height (m^2)

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5

Waist circumference requirements for men and women

<40 inches in men, <35 inches in women

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6

Waist to hip ratio (WHR) equation

waist circumference / hip circumference

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7

What WHR indicates central obesity risk?

0.5

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8

What is a simple advice for healthy WHR?

keep waist to less than half your height

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9

What is a healthy BMI range

18.5-25

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10

What is considered underweight in BMI

<18.5

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11

What BMI range is overweight

25-30

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12

What BMI is obese

30

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13

Nutrient density

ratio of beneficial ingredients to food's energy content for the amount consumed

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14

Calorie density

number of calories in an amount of food

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15

What is the minimum amount of moderate-intensity activity per week?

2 hours 30 minutes

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16

What are some suggestions for increasing activity levels

find something enjoyable, use buddy system, spread out activity, start slowly and slowly increase, keep activity log

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17

Example of light activity

walking, housework

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18

Examples of moderate physical activity

cardiorespiratory endurance exercises, jogging, walking briskly, weight training

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19

Examples of vigorous physical activity

running, high intensity weight training, interval training

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20

Changes on food labels

servings per container in larger bold type, serving size reflects how much is typically eaten at one time, calories are in bold, percent daily values updated, new added sugars included, vitamins, footnote better explains daily value

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21

Functional foods

foods offering health benefits beyond nutritional value

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22

Examples of functional foods

berries, soy foods, oats, fatty fish, green tea, nuts, citrus fruits, spinach, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage

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23

What are symptoms of foodborne illness usually mistaken for?

flu

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24

Examples of foodborne illnesses from least to most dangerous

campylobacter, norovirus, listeria monocytogenes, toxoplasma gondii, salmonella nontyphoidal

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25

Ways to keep food safe

hand hygiene, do not cross contaminate, refrigeration, cook to proper temperature

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26

Food - medication interactions (5)

calcium rich foods and antibiotics, pickled fermented foods and MAIOs, vitamin k and warfarin, alcohol and prescription stimulants, grapefruit juice and statins

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27

Supplement - medication interactions patient education

discuss supplement use with physician, only single-supplement products should be used and in small doses, monitor for adverse effects

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28

Positive results of GMOs

greater crop yields, greater resistance, longer shelf life, better flavor, new food varieties

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29

Concerns about GMOs

unwanted changes in nutritional content, creation of allergens, toxic effects on bodily organs

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30

Food irradiation or "cold pasturization"

reduces or eliminates pathogens that can cause foodborne illness

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31

"Typical American diet"

cross-cultural food creations, convenience foods, restaurant sourced meals

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32

Core foods

provide significant source of calories and are regularly included in the diet, typically complex carbs

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33

Examples of core foods

rice, noodles, eggs, bread

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34

Secondary foods

foods widely consumed but not on a daily basis, vary with availability

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35

Examples of secondary foods

dairy, sugars, meats

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36

Peripheral foods

eaten occasionally, typically based on individual's preferences

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37

Examples of peripheral foods

cake, ice cream, candy

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38

Nutrition of traditional "soul food"

high in fat, cholesterol, sodium, often breaded and fried, reserved for special occasions and holidays

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39

Nutrition of traditional Mexican diet

low-fat, high-fiber, many complex carbohydrates and vegetable proteins, pork, goat, poultry, lactose intolerance is common

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40

Nutrition of traditional Asian diets

rice and wheat, cooked foods, high sodium intake

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41

Roman Catholics nutritional restrictions

no meat on ash wednesday or fridays in lent, avoid food and beverages one hour before communion, several fast days during year

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42

Eastern Orthodox Christians nutritional restrictions

numerous feast and fast days

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43

Mormons dietary restrictions

no coffee, tea, alcohol, or tobacco; limit meats, eat mostly grains, fast once per month

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44

Seventh-Day Adventists nutrition restrictions

lacto-ovo vegetarians, no overeating, no coffee, tea, and alcohol; 5-6 hours between meals without snacking

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45

Judaism diet restrictions

no kosher animals, no blood, milk and meat are never combined

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46

Islam diet restrictions

no pork, no carnivorous animals, no birds of prey, no land animals without ears, no gelatin, no blood, no intoxicants

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47

Hinduism diet restricitons

nonviolence as applied to foods, mostly vegetarian, no beef or alcohol

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48

Buddhism diet restrictions

lacto-ovo vegetarians

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49

What is the lacto-ovo vegetarian diet?

grains, fruits and vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy products, and eggs

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50

Recommended weight gain for pregnancy in BMI <18.5

28-40 lbs

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51

Recommended weight gain for pregnancy in BMI 18.5-24.9

25-35 lbs

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52

Recommended weight gain for pregnancy in BMI 25-29.9

15-25 lbs

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53

Recommended weight gain for pregnancy in BMI >30

11-20 lbs

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54

Potential nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy

folic acid, iron

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55

Benefit of folic acid supplementation

decrease risk of neural tube defects

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56

Recommended dose of folic acid supplements

400μg/day

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57

Benefit of iron supplements

decreased risk of low birth weight, decreased risk of preterm delivery and perinatal mortality

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58

Recommended dose of iron supplements

27mg/day

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59

What are other supplements that pregnant women can be recommended?

multivitamin and mineral supplement

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60

Nursing interventions for nausea during pregnancy

eat easily digested carbs, frequent small snacks, avoid liquids with meals, limit high-fat foods

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61

Nursing interventions for constipation during pregnancy

increase fiber intake, increase fluid intake, hot water with lemon or prune, regular exercise

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62

Nursing interventions for heartburn during pregnancy

Small frequent meals, eliminate liquids before and after meals, avoid coffee, high-fat, spices, lying down or bending while eating

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63

Breastfeeding contraindications

galactosemia, illegal drug use, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, certain drugs

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64

Benefits of breastfeeding for infant

optimum nutrition, enhances immune protection, reduce allergies, lessens risk of overfeeding, aids in development, lowers risk for obesity, reduces constipation or diarrhea

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65

Benefits of breastfeeding for mother

strengthen bond, reduced financial cost, less preparation and cleanup, inhibits ovulation, decreases risk of postpartum depression, lowers risk of developing type 2 diabetes, breast and ovarian cancers

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66

How is formula different from breast milk?

no antibodies in formula, nutrients are not as easily absorbed, babies gain weight more quickly, risk of overfeeding

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67

Nutrients most likely to be deficient in children and adolescents

fiber, vitamin A, calcium, iron, potassium

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68

Health risks related to breakfast skipping

lower intake of vitamins and minerals

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69

Some barriers parents face against obesity prevention for their children

lack of time, belief that children will outgrow excess weight, lack of knowledge, fear they will cause eating disorders

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70

Define "aging"

gradual, inevitable, and complex process that eventually leads to organ, tissue, and function impairments

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71

How do calorie and nutrient requirements change with aging?

less calories, more nutrients

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72

Why is protein, fiber, water, vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium and iron are of concern in older adults?

higher amounts of protein is used to stimulate protein synthesis, altered sense of thirst and decreased ability to urinate increases risk of dehydration and hyponatremia, fiber protects against coronary heart disease, reduced ability to make vitamin d, low bone density means increased calcium requirements, atrophic gastritis may limit ability to digest b12

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73

Four nutrient related concerns in older adults

obesity, alzheimer's disease, malnutrition, frailty

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