Psych BOE 1 Indy

studied byStudied by 34 people
5.0(2)
get a hint
hint

Hindsight Bias

1 / 43

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

44 Terms

1

Hindsight Bias

psychological phenomenon that allows people to convince themselves after an event that they accurately predicted it before it happened

New cards
2

Operational Definition

a description of something in terms of the operations (procedures, actions, or processes) by which it could be observed and measured.

New cards
3

Case Study

a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon

New cards
4

Naturalistic Observation

a research method in which the researcher studies behavior in its natural setting without intervention or manipulation

New cards
5

Survey

a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals.

New cards
6

Experiment

an investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested.

New cards
7

Control Group

the control group comprises participants who do not receive the experimental treatment

New cards
8

Experimental Group

the group of participants who are exposed to the independent variable/the drug

New cards
9

Population

the complete set group of individuals, whether that group comprises a nation or a group of people with a common characteristic

New cards
10

Random Sample

a subset of individuals randomly selected by researchers to represent an entire group as a whole.

New cards
11

Random Assignment

the use of chance procedures in psychology experiments to ensure that each participant has the same opportunity to be assigned to any given group

New cards
12

Double-Blind Procedure

one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.

New cards
13

Placebo

a treatment that appears real, but is designed to have no therapeutic benefit.

New cards
14

Independent Variable

the characteristic of an experiment that is manipulated or changed by researchers, not by other variables in the experiment.

New cards
15

Dependent Variable

the variable that changes as a result of the independent variable manipulation

New cards
16

Statistical Significance

a measure of the probability of the null hypothesis being true compared to the acceptable level of uncertainty regarding the true answer

New cards
17

Illusory Correlation

a judgment by a perceiver that two variables are associated with each other, even though they were not associated in the information on which the judgment was based

New cards
18

Standard Deviation

a measure of dispersion that shows the spread of scores around the mean

New cards
19

Informed Consent

participants must be told and give their consent to the: purpose of research, procedures that will be used, risks or potential discomforts, and length of time involved.

New cards
20

Debriefing

a set of procedures including counselling and the giving of information aimed at preventing psychological morbidity and aiding recovery after a traumatic event.

New cards
21

just-world phenomenon

The belief that people get what they deserve, attributing success to merit and failure to personal flaws, ignoring external factors.

New cards
22

altruism

an apparently unselfish behavior that provides benefit to others at some cost to the individual

New cards
23

aggression

any behavior or act aimed at harming a person or animal or damaging physical property

New cards
24

frustration-aggression hypothesis

The theory that frustration increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior. When people are prevented from reaching a goal or experiencing something negative, they may respond with aggression. Frustration can be caused by various factors, such as obstacles, unmet expectations, or unfair treatment. Aggression can manifest physically or verbally.

New cards
25

bystander effect

Psychological phenomenon where individuals are less likely to help in an emergency when others are present. It occurs due to diffusion of responsibility and social influence.

New cards
26

social loafing

Tendency for individuals to exert less effort in a group compared to when working alone.

New cards
27

social exchange theory

Theory that explains social interactions as a process of exchanging rewards and costs between individuals. People engage in relationships where the benefits outweigh the drawbacks.

New cards
28

reciprocity norm

A social expectation that people should respond to others' actions with similar actions, either positive or negative, creating a sense of fairness and obligation in social interactions.

New cards
29

conflict

A clash or disagreement between individuals or groups with opposing interests, beliefs, or values. It can arise due to various factors such as competition, misunderstandings, or differences in opinion. Conflict can be both interpersonal and societal, and may lead to tension, hostility, or even violence if not resolved effectively.

New cards
30

social trap

A situation where individuals pursue their own self-interest, leading to a negative outcome for the group as a whole.

New cards
31

ingroup vs. outgroup phenonmenon

The ingroup vs. outgroup phenomenon refers to the tendency of individuals to categorize people into groups, with the ingroup being their own group and the outgroup being other groups. This can lead to favoritism towards the ingroup and discrimination against the outgroup, based on social identity and perceived differences.

New cards
32

fundamental attribution error

The tendency to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate situational factors when explaining others' behavior.

New cards
33

diffusion of responsibility

The phenomenon where individuals feel less responsibility to take action in a group setting, leading to a decreased likelihood of helping others in need.

New cards
34

deindividuation

The loss of individual identity and self-awareness in a group setting, leading to a decrease in inhibitions and an increase in impulsive and deviant behavior.

New cards
35

social responsibility norm

we should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks

New cards
36

Phillip Zimbardo

Psychologist known for his Stanford Prison Experiment, which demonstrated the power of social roles in influencing behavior. He also studied time perspective and wrote the book "The Time Paradox."

New cards
37

groupthink

A phenomenon where a group of individuals prioritize harmony and conformity over critical thinking, leading to flawed decision-making and stifling of diverse perspectives.

New cards
38

social facilitation

The phenomenon where the presence of others enhances individual performance on simple tasks but impairs performance on complex tasks.

New cards
39

Soloman Asch

The experiments revealed the degree to which a person's own opinions are influenced by those of a group

New cards
40

Stanley Milgram

Stanley Milgram was a social psychologist best-remembered for his now infamous obedience experiments.

New cards
41

foot-in-the-door technique

A persuasion technique where a small request is made first, followed by a larger request. People are more likely to comply with the larger request after agreeing to the smaller one.

New cards
42

reciprocity

The principle of giving back or exchanging favors with others, creating a mutual obligation.

New cards
43

obedience

compliance with an order, request, or law or submission to another's authority.

New cards
44

conformity

the tendency for an individual to align their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors with those of the people around them

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 182 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 86 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 120 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard141 terms
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 383 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 100 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)