Ancient Egypt

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Narmer

The person responsible for first unifying Upper and Lower Egypt; The first king of Egypt’s First Dynasty; 3150 BCE; Ruled for 62 years

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Djoser

Second king of 3rd Dynasty; Reigned for over 2 decades; He concerned himself as a god Made the first significant stone 2650 – 2575 BCE

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Khufu

Known as Cheops 4th Dynasty pharaoh Started the major necropolis on the Giza Plateau 2589 – 2566 BCE; He has a tiny statue of himself

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Ramesses II

most famous and powerful ruler during period considered the Egyptian Golden Age He has a 6ft statue of himself "The Great Ancestor"

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Nefertiti

Wife of Akhenaton She may have ruled Egypt as co-regent (1353 – 1336 BCE) She is the queen whose tomb some postulate is in a sealed chamber within the tomb of King Tut!

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The Bust of Nefertiti

Nefertiti’s fame and popularity is largely the result of this discovery – considered the very definition of beauty -

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Tutankhamen (King Tut)

He is famous for the only non-looted tomb found in the Valley of the Kings to date. 1333 – 1323 BCE

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Hatshepsut

Impeccable bloodline – daughter, sister, and wife of a king; Ruled Egypt for 21 years; Second-known woman to hold the position of pharaoh Ruled from 1479 – 1458 BCE Daughter of Thutmose I Married to Thutmose II (her half-brother - son of Thutmose I by one of his wives that was not her mother)

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Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple

Modeled on the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II – a ruler that Hatshepsut admired has 3 levels

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Sobek

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Ra

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Horus

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Anubis

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Osiris

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<p>Who is this</p>
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<p>Who is this</p>

Who is this

Isis

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Isis

face/head of a woman … wife of Osiris and is the embodiment of the traditional roles of a wife and mother

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Osiris

wrapped in grave goods; shown with a green colored face – god of the underworld

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Anubis

jackal-headed god of the dead and overseer of mummification

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Horus

falcon head wearing the pschent – the sky god, the embodiment of divine kingship … son of Isis and Osiris

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Ra

sun disc with cobra on falcon head – sun god (who rides through the sky in a solar barge during day and the underworld each night during which he would have to defeat the snake-god Apophis so that he could rise again)

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Sobek

head of crocodile – god of strength and power – protector against the dangers of the Nile

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death

Death is not the end Death is the beginning of the next phase of someones next journey

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Burial Rituals – Grave Goods

Pots Food and drink in stone vessels Combs Slate palettes on which cosmetics were ground Figures (shabti) Amulets Board games Beds Chests Clothing Papyrus

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papyrus

Book of the Dead and other religious texts

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Khat

physical body, the vessel inhabited by the souls on Earth; preserving the body for the afterlife is important so that the soul has a place to return to.

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Ba

personality, composed of the things that makes an individual unique; closest thing to our modern understanding of the soul

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Ka

(vital essence/spark) breathed into a person upon birth by a goddess ;what distinguishes whether a person is alive or dead

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Shuyet

shadow, always present; was a summary of what the person represented what made him/her unique; somewhat connected with the god Anubis.

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ren

true name given by the gods upon birth and known only to them; name used on Earth is a nickname; had the power to end one’s life and destroy one’s soul completely.

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Jb

the heart, the home of human emotions as well as being the center of thought, the part of the soul that granted one access to the afterlife

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Akh

immortal self, a magical unification of the Ba and Ka guaranteed by the proper funeral rites did not stay with the body but lived among the stars; could return to the body if necessary.

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Sahu

judge; spiritual body, part of the Akh that separated from it in the afterlife and could protect one’s loved ones and haunt one’s enemies.

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Sachem

life energy, the life energy of the soul; mysterious because not much is known about it; lived among the stars

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Pit Graves

In the desert, away from croplands; Round or oval pit; Body in fetal position; Rich and poor alike

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Mastaba

they put wooden sticks and mud bricks/dirt to cover the pit in the form of a mound. They look like benches in front of Egyptians homes. Its the Arabic word for bench

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Step Pyramid

Monument to King Djoser The structure started as a square mastaba It was a stack of smaller mastabas on top of each other 204 feet high – the highest structure in the world at the time; Complex (40 acres): Temple, Courtyard, Shrines Living quarters for priests Wall – 30 feet high Trench – 2460 feet long and 131 feet wide 13 false doors

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The “Bent” Pyramid

“The Southern Shining One;” Had Engineering issues structure is 332 feet tall. 2600 BCE

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The “Perfect” Pyramid

“Red Pyramid” of Dahshure Constructed by Sneferu; Several layers of fine white limestone were used to construct the foundation; Took 17 years to finish. 2590 BCE

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The “Great” Pyramid and the Giza Plateau

The Great Pyramid of Khufu; The Pyramid of Khafre; The Pyramid of Menkaure. The Great Sphinx 2589 – 2504 BCE

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Does the Egyptian Art with the harmonious, naturalistic but idealized creations of ancient Greece and Renaissance European artists?

No it doesn't!

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The differences between Greece, Renaissance and Egyptian Art

~Functional purpose ~Relatively conservative tradition ~there was not even a word for “art” in ancient Egypt

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3-D ART

Statuary, Architecture, Functional Objects

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Functional Objects

Palette Jewelry Sarcophagus (and other grave goods)

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Statuary

Gods Royalty Elite

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Architecture

Sphinx Pyramids Temples

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2-D ART

Figures, symbols, and/or hieroglyphics Reliefs (carving) Wall paintings Scroll painting

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Reliefs (carving)

On Tomb and Temple Walls

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Wall paintings

On Tomb and Temple Walls

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PURPOSES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ART

Ceremonial, Narrative, Functional

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ceremonial

For religious purposes (especially as it pertains to the afterlife) For political purposes (to maintain order)

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Narrative

To tell stories Of the kings making offerings to the gods (Karnak); Of the king smiting the enemies of Egypt (Karnak); Of Hatshepsut’s voyage to Punt (Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple); Of a hippo hunt (Mastaba of Ty) To give instructions

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Functional

Canopic jars – to hold organs; Sarcophagus – to hold coffin/mummy; Jewelry Pots Palettes

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Ankh

Represents the word "life" and heaven, male & female, the morning sun and earth. "may you live and be well"

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The Eye of Horus

The Eye was used as a sign of prosperity

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Eye of Ra

An aspect of danger and violence as it represents the heat and wrath of the sun.

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Scarab Beetle

Represents the internal cycle of life. Symbol of birth, life, death and resurrections

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Djed

A symbol meaning stability is the symbolic backbone of the god

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Sesen

The lotus plant is a symbol of rebirth

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Crook and Fail

Symbolizing government

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tret

also referred as knot or blood. Symbolizes of protection

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Was

is a symbol that appears often in relics. art and hieroglyphs

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Shen

Symbolizing completeness infinity and serving as protection

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Hedjet

the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt

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Deshret

For the rulers of Lower Egypt

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Pshent

The rulers of both Lower and Upper Egypt under on ruler

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Feather of Ma'at

is a goddess while her ostrich feather represents truth

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Karnak Temple

Built over 2000years 2055Bc - 100AD Dedicate to the god Amun, Mut, Khonsu A place for pilgrimage for 2000years 2nd largest religious building in the world.

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First Pylon

the last to be built, it is the main entrance into the Karnak temple never completed and is undecorated sphinx symbolizes the god Amun

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The Great Court with the Kiosk of Tahraqa and the Second pylon

has a statue of Ramsesses II wearing a double crown of Upper/Lower Egypt and arms crossed

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Ramsesses III Chapel

shrine built by Ramsesses III the first court is lined with Osiride statues of the king the west side statues wear the red crown of the south the east side statues wear the white crown of the north

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Hypostyle Hall

largest room of any religious building in the world 134 gigantic stone columns 54,000 square feet (16,459 meters)

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Festival Hall of Tuthmosis III

named by Tuthmosis as the “Most Splendid of Monuments” entrance originally flanked by two statues of the king in a festival costume

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Obelisks

There once were 20 obelisks but only 3 remain in full form Thutmose I’s obelisk is on the left and Hatshepsut’s is on the right Sety II’s obelisk is at the main entrance

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The Sacred Lake

largest of its kind and dug by Tuthmosis III (1473-1458 BC) lined with stone wall and stairways descending into the water used for ritual washing and ritual navigation

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Thutmose III Pylon

Seventh pylon and shows Thutmose III wearing a red crown and smiting his enemies with a club list of 119 Palestinian towns conquered during his first campaigns two badly damaged colossi sit in front of the pylon

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Temple of Khonsu

Khonsu was believed to draw out evil spirits built by Ramesses III

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Khonsu

Khonsu was the son of Amun and Mut moon god with a falcon head wearing a crescent moon headdress sometimes represented by a baboon

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Hieroglyphics

Ancient Egyptian language written in symbols mostly written on walls, temples, or stones.

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Ankh

The Ankh represents the word life. This symbol is said to be a key to eternal life.

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Scarab Beetle

This symbol is shown as a beetle and it symbolizes birth, life, and resurrection.

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