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GI system function

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GI system function

Ingestion, digestion, propulsion, secretion, absorption, elimination

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Accessory organs of the digestive system

Paratoid salivary glands, teeth, tongue, sublingual salivary gland, submandibular salivary gland, liver

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Propulsion

Involves peristalsis and segmentation. movement of food in 2 steps

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Peristalsis

the ripple-like wave of muscular contraction (forces materials to move further along the GI tract. muscular contraction to move food further

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Segmentation

mixing of material (helping to mix materials and combine them with digestive organ secretion

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Oral cavity

cheeks, lips, palate, tongue, salivary, glands, and teeth Vestibule (space between lips and teeth)

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Vestibule

space between lips and teeth

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Salivary glands

moistens ingested materials to become a slick bolus Chemical digestion of ingested materials Antibacterial action Dissolves materials so that taste receptors on the tongue can be stimulated

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Majority of saliva comes from

submandibular (60-70%)

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Cranial nerve 7 controls

submandibular and sublingual (3-5% production)

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Cranial nerve 9 controls

parotid 25-30% of production

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teeth

Cementum Periodontal ligaments Dental alveoli Dentin Apical foramen: blood vessels and nerves Pulp cavity Enamel Crown Gingiva Neck

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Deciduous teeth

Erupt between 6-30 months, 20 in number

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permanent teeth

replaces deciduous teeth, 32 in number

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Pharynx

Shared by the respiratory and digestive system Three skeletal muscle pairs of pharyngeal constrictors

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Esophagus

made up of stratified squamous

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Esophageal hiatus

the opening through the diaphragm that connects the esophagus to the stomach

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Superior esophageal sphincter

at the junction of the pharynx and esophagus

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Inferior esophageal sphincter

junction of the esophagus and the stomach

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swallowing process

Voluntary phase Pharyngeal phase Esophageal phase

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Stomach

Continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of bolus Upper left quadrant of the abdomen Four regions: cardia, fundus, body, pyloris.

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Four regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pyloris

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Large intestines anatomy

Tenia coli Haustum: pouches Omental appendices Attachments Sigmoid mesocolon Transverse mesocolon Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal

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Musculans mucosa

right underneath the intestinal gland

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Liver

right lobes, left lobes, caudate lobe, quadrate lobe

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Falciform ligament

separates the left and right lobe

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Porta hepatitis

Hepatic artery proper Common hepatic duct Hepatic portal vein

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Common hepatic duct

vile comes out of the liver and goes up to the gallbladder

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Branch of the hepatic portal vein

brings blood to the liver

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The hepatic vein

takes blood out of the liver from there to the inferior vena cava

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Right and left hepatic ducts merge

to form a common hepatic duct

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Common hepatic and cystic ducts merge

to form a common bile duct

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Sphincter hepatopancreatic

bile duct and pancreatic duct join together to pancreas and bile to drain into the duodenum

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Pancreas

99% produces digestive enzymes (cell acinar) 1 % produces insulin hormones (pancreatic islet)

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Kidney

1 million nephrons in each kidney Location: around T12 8-12 lobes Cortex Medulla Sinus nephron

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Blood circulation inside the kidney

Afferent arteriole= glomerulus= efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries

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Vasa recta

forms the same shape as loop of henle ( U shape) makes urine concentrated

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Juxtaglomerural apparatus

controls blood pressure

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Renal corpuscle

Bowman's capsule glomerulus

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Macula densa

a wall of distal convoluted tube

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Granular cells

contain renin (on the wall of the afferent arteriole there is some smooth muscle in these cells) which are called juxtaglomerular cells

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Podocyte cells

sitting on top of capillaries (cells of visceral membrane)

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Pedicles

blood before entering Bowman's capsule

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Distal convoluted tube and collective tube

ADH and aldosterone target for these hormones

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Urinary tract

Ureters

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Fibro muscular

wall contains 3 layers Mucosa Muscularis Adventitia

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When the wall of the bladder contract

closes the ureters

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Urinary bladder

Mucosa and Submucosa Muscularis Adventitia

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Urethra

Takes out the urine, females is shorter, male is longer

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3 parts of male urethra

Prostatic Membranous Spongy

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Gonads

produce sex cells called gametes

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Ovaries

oocytes (XX). anchored to pelvis by folds of peritonium

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Testes

sperm (XY)

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Accessory organs of female reproductive system

Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina Clitoris Mammary glands

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Perineum

2 triangles; Urogenital and anal triangle

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Urogenital

urethriel orifice base of penis and scrotum. form pubic symphysis to the ischial tuberosity.

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Anal triangle

ischial tuberosity to coccyx

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Vescicouterine pouch

between the bladder and uterus

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Rectouterine pouch

between uterus and anus

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Antevert

bending forward of the uterus (towards the bladder)

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Retrovert

bending forward of the uterus (towards the bladder)

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Ovaries

ligaments that hold them

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Mesovarium

back wall. mesenteric part of ovaries attaching to wall.

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Broad ligament

covers everything like a sheet

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Suspensory ligament

side wall, to the wall of the pelvis

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Layers of the uterus

Endometrium Myometrium Perineitrium Vagina Vulva

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Uterus ligaments

Round ligament Transverse ligament: cervix to side wall Uterosacral ligament

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Cervix

Internal OS, cervical canal, external OS

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Primordial

1 layer of simple squamous

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primary

2 layers of cuboidal

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Secondary

antrum(cavity) egg still in the center

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Matur

antrum huge and egg pushed to the side (vesicular follicle)

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Uterus

fondus and body

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Follicles

egg and sheet that covers it

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primordial follicles

2 million when your born

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Covering the egg

Primordial follicle Primary follicles Secondary follicle Mature follicle

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Ogonium

creates the 2 million eggs (before born)

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Primary oocyte

daughter of oogonium. Doesn't complete mitosis

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Mature follicle

secondary oocyte contains 23 chromosomes. Each chromosome has two copies. This is what women ovulate

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Sperm

will make it change or separate into two copies

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Ovum

sperm gets in 23 chromosomes

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Corpus luteum

stays alive for 2 weeks and chains into corpus albicans

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Sperm

24 hours to 48 hours alive

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egg

3 days alive

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