Metabolic Regulation Unit 1

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Which of the following specialties might focus on studying all of the structures of the ankle and foot? A. microscopic anatomy B. muscle anatomy C. regional anatomy D. systemic anatomy

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1

Which of the following specialties might focus on studying all of the structures of the ankle and foot? A. microscopic anatomy B. muscle anatomy C. regional anatomy D. systemic anatomy

regional anatomy

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2

A scientist wants to study how the body uses foods and fluids during a marathon run. This scientist is most likely a(n) ________. A. exercise physiologist B. microscopic anatomist C. regional physiologist D. systemic anatomist

exercise physiologist

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3

The smallest independently functioning biological unit of an organism is a(n) ________. A. cell B. molecule C. organ D. tissue

cell

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4

A collection of similar tissues that performs a specific function is an ________. A. Organ 2. Organelle 3. Organism 4. Organ System

Organ

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5

The body system responsible for structural support and movement is the ________. A. Cardiovascular B. Endocrine C. Muscular D. Skeletal

Skeletal

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6

Metabolism can be defined as the ________. A. adjustment by an organism to external or internal changes B. process whereby all unspecialized cells become specialized to perform distinct functions C. process whereby new cells are formed to replace worn-out cells D. Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism

Sum of all chemical reactions in an organism

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7

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important molecule because it ________. A. is the result of catabolism B. release energy in uncontrolled bursts C. stores energy for use by body cells D. All of the above

stores energy for use by body cells

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8

Cancer cells can be characterized as "generic" cells that perform no specialized body function. Thus cancer cells lack ________. A. differentiation B. reproduction C. responsiveness D. both reproduction and responsiveness

differentiation

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9

Humans have the most urgent need for a continuous supply of ________. A. food B. nitrogen C. oxygen D. water

oxygen

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10

Which of the following statements about nutrients is true? A. All classes of nutrients are essential to human survival. B. Because the body cannot store any micronutrients, they need to be consumed nearly every day. C. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are micronutrients. D. Macronutrients are vitamins and minerals.

all classes of nutrients are essential to human survival

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11

.J. is stuck in their car during a bitterly cold blizzard. Their body responds to the cold by ________. A. increasing the blood to the hands and feet B. becoming lethargic to conserve heat C. breaking down stored energy D. significantly increasing blood oxygen levels

breaking down stored energy

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12

After you eat lunch, nerve cells in your stomach respond to the distension (the stimulus) resulting from the food. They relay this information to ________. A. a control center B. a set point C. effectors D. sensors

control center

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13

Stimulation of the heat-loss center causes ________. A. blood vessels in the skin to constrict B. breathing to become slow and shallow C. sweat glands to increase their output D. All of the above

sweat glands to increase their output

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14

Which of the following is an example of a normal physiologic process that uses a positive feedback loop? A.blood pressure regulation B. childbirth C. regulation of fluid balance D. temperature regulation

childbirth

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15

What is the position of the body when it is in the "normal anatomical position?" A. The person is prone with upper limbs, including palms, touching sides and lower limbs touching at sides. B. The person is standing facing the observer, with upper limbs extended out at a ninety-degree angle from the torso and lower limbs in a wide stance with feet pointing laterally C. The person is supine with upper limbs, including palms, touching sides and lower limbs touching at sides. D. None of the above

None of the Above

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16

To make a banana split, you halve a banana into two long, thin, right and left sides along the ________. A. coronal plane B. longitudinal plane C. midsagittal plane D. transverse plane

longitudinal

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17

The lumbar region is ________. A. inferior to the gluteal region B. inferior to the umbilical region C. superior to the cervical region D. superior to the popliteal region

superior to the popliteal region

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18

The heart is within the ________. A. Cranial cavity B. mediastinum C. posterior (dorsal) cavity D. All of the above

mediastinum

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19

In 1901, Wilhelm Röntgen was the first person to win the Nobel Prize for physics. For what discovery did he win? A. nuclear physics B. radiopharmaceuticals C. the link between radiation and cancer D. X-rays

x-rays

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20

Which of the following imaging techniques would be best to use to study the uptake of nutrients by rapidly multiplying cancer cells? A. CT B. MRI C. PET D. ultrasonography

PET

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21

Which of the following imaging studies can be used most safely during pregnancy? A. CT scans B. PET scans C. ultrasounds D. X-rays

ultrasounds

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22

What are two major disadvantages of MRI scans? A. release of radiation and poor quality images B. high cost and the need for shielding from the magnetic signals C. can only view metabolically active tissues and inadequate availability of equipment D. release of radiation and the need for a patient to be confined to metal tube for up to 30 minutes

high cost and the need for shielding from the magnetic signals

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23

Which of the following is not a type of tissue? A. muscle B. nervous C. embryonic D. epithelial

embryonic

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24

The process by which a less specialized cell matures into a more specialized cell is called ________. A.differentiation B. maturation C. modification D. specialization

differentiation

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25

Differentiated cells in a developing embryo derive from ________. A. endothelium, mesothelium, and epithelium B. ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm C. connective tissue, epithelial tissue, and muscle tissue D. epidermis, mesoderm, and endothelium

ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

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26

Which of the following lines the body cavities exposed to the external environment? A. mesothelium B. lamina propria C. mesenteries D. mucosa

mucosa

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27

In observing epithelial cells under a microscope, the cells are arranged in a single layer and look tall and narrow, and the nucleus is located close to the basal side of the cell. The specimen is what type of epithelial tissue? A. columnar B. stratified C. squamous D. transitional

columnar

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28

Which of the following is the epithelial tissue that lines the interior of blood vessels? A. columnar B. pseudostratified C. simple squamous D,. transitional

simple squamous

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29

Which type of epithelial tissue specializes in moving particles across its surface? A. transitional B. stratified columnar C. pseudostratified ciliated columnar D. stratified squamous

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

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30

The ________ exocrine gland stores its secretion until the glandular cell ruptures, whereas the ________ gland releases its apical region and reforms. A. holocrine; apocrine B. eccrine; endocrine C. apocrine; holocrine D. eccrine; apocrine

holocrine, apocrine

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31

Connective tissue is made of which three essential components? A. cells, ground substance, and carbohydrate fibers B. cells, ground substance, and protein fibers C. collagen, ground substance, and protein fibers D. matrix, ground substance, and fluid

cells, ground substance, and protein fibers

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32

Under the microscope, a tissue specimen shows cells located in spaces scattered in a transparent background. This is probably ________. A. loose connective tissue B. a tendon C. bone D. hyaline cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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33

Which connective tissue specializes in storage of fat? A. tendon B. adipose tissue C. reticular tissue D. dense connective tissue

adipose tissue

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34

Ligaments connect bones together and withstand a lot of stress. What type of connective tissue should you expect ligaments to contain? A. areolar tissue B. adipose tissue C. dense regular connective tissue D. dense irregular connective tissue

dense regular connective tissue

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35

In adults, new connective tissue cells originate from the ________. A.mesoderm B. mesenchyme C. ectoderm D. endoderm

mesenchyme

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36

In bone, the main cells are ________. A. fibroblasts B. chondrocytes C. lymphocytes D. osteocytes

osteocytes

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37

Striations, cylindrical cells, and multiple nuclei are observed in ________. A. skeletal muscle only B. cardiac muscle only C. smooth muscle only D. skeletal and cardiac muscles

skeletal muscle only

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38

The cells of muscles, myocytes, develop from ________. A. myoblasts B. endoderm C. fibrocytes D. chondrocytes

myoblasts

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39

Skeletal muscle is composed of very hard working cells. Which organelles do you expect to find in abundance in skeletal muscle cell? A. nuclei B. striations C. golgi bodies D. mitochondria

mitochondria

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40

The cells responsible for the transmission of the nerve impulse are ________. neurons oligodendrocytes astrocytes microglia

neurons

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41

The nerve impulse travels down a(n) ________, away from the cell body. dendrite axon microglia collagen fiber

axon

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42

Which of the following central nervous system cells regulate ions, regulate the uptake and/or breakdown of some neurotransmitters, and contribute to the formation of the blood-brain barrier? microglia neuroglia oligodendrocytes astrocytes

astrocytes

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43

Which of the following processes is not a cardinal sign of inflammation? redness heat fever swelling

fever

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44

When a mast cell reacts to an irritation, which of the following chemicals does it release? collagen histamine hyaluronic acid meylin

histamine

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45

Atrophy refers to ________. loss of elasticity loss of mass loss of rigidity loss of permeability

loss of mass

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46

Individuals can slow the rate of aging by modifying all of these lifestyle aspects except for ________. diet exercise genetic factors Stress

genetic factors

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47

The papillary layer of the dermis is most closely associated with which layer of the epidermis? stratum spinosum stratum corneum stratum granulosum stratum basale

stratum basale

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48

Langerhans cells are commonly found in the ________. stratum spinosum stratum corneum stratum granulosum stratum basale

stratum spinosum

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49

The papillary and reticular layers of the dermis are composed mainly of ________. melanocytes keratinocytes connective tissue adipose tissue

connective tissue

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50

Collagen lends ________ to the skin. elasticity structure color UV protection

structure

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51

Which of the following is not a function of the hypodermis? A. protects underlying organs B. helps maintain body temperature C. source of blood vessels in the epidermis D. a site to long-term energy storage

source of blood vessels in the epidermis

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52

In response to stimuli from the sympathetic nervous system, the arrector pili ________. A. are glands on the skin surface B. can lead to excessive sweating C. are responsible for goose bumps D. secrete sebum

are responsible for goose bumps

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53

The hair matrix contains ________. A. the hair follicle B. the hair shaft C. the glassy membrane D.a layer of basal cells

a layer of basal cells

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54

Eccrine sweat glands ________. A. are present on hair B. are present in the skin throughout the body and produce watery sweat C. produce sebum D.act as a moisturizer

present in the skin throughout the body and produce watery sweat

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55

Sebaceous glands ________. A. are a type of sweat gland B. are associated with hair follicles C. may function in response to touch D. release a watery solution of salt and metabolic waste

are associated with hair follicles

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56

Similar to the hair, nails grow continuously throughout our lives. Which of the following is furthest from the nail growth center? nail bed hyponychium nail root eponychium

hyponychium

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57

In humans, exposure of the skin to sunlight is required for ________. vitamin D synthesis arteriole constriction folate production thermoregulation

vitamin D synthesis

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58

One of the functions of the integumentary system is protection. Which of the following does not directly contribute to that function? A. stratum lucidum B. desmosomes C. folic acid synthesis D. Merkel cells

folic acid synthesis

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59

An individual using a sharp knife notices a small amount of blood where he just cut himself. Which of the following layers of skin did he have to cut into in order to bleed? A. stratum corneum B. stratum basale C. papillary dermis D. stratum granulosum

papillary dermis

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60

As you are walking down the beach, you see a dead, dry, shriveled-up fish. Which layer of your epidermis keeps you from drying out? A. stratum corneum B. stratum basale C. stratum spinosum D. stratum granulosum

stratum corneum

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61

If you cut yourself and bacteria enter the wound, which of the following cells would help get rid of the bacteria? A. Merkel cells B. keratinocytes C. Langerhans cells D. melanocytes

langerhans cells

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62

In general, skin cancers ________. A. are easily treatable and not a major health concern B. occur due to poor hygiene C. can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun D. affect only the epidermis

can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun

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63

Bedsores ________. A. can be treated with topical moisturizers B. can result from deep massages C.are preventable by eliminating pressure points D. are caused by dry skin

are preventable by eliminating pressure points

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64

An individual has spent too much time sun bathing. Not only is their skin painful to touch, but small blisters have appeared in the affected area. This indicates that they have damaged which layers of skin? A. epidermis only B. hypodermis only C. epidermis and hypodermis D. epidermis and dermis

epidermis and dermis

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65

After a skin injury, the body initiates a wound-healing response. The first step of this response is the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding. Which of the following would be the next response? A. increased production of melanin by melanocytes B. increased production of connective tissue C. an increase in Pacinian corpuscles around the wound D. an increased activity in the stratum lucidum

increased production of connective tissue

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66

Squamous cell carcinomas are the second most common of the skin cancers and are capable of metastasizing if not treated. This cancer affects which cells? A. basal cells of the stratum basale B. melanocytes of the stratum basale C. keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum D. Langerhans cells of the stratum lucidum

keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum

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67

Which function of the skeletal system would be especially important if you were in a car accident? A. storage of minerals B. protection of internal organs C. facilitation of movement D. fat storage

protection of internal organs

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68

Bone tissue can be described as ________. A. dead calcified tissue B. cartilage C. the skeletal system D. dense, hard connective tissue

dense hard connective tissue

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69

Without red marrow, bones would not be able to ________. store phosphate store calcium make blood cells move like levers

make blood cells

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70

Yellow marrow has been identified as ________. an area of fat storage a point of attachment for muscles the hard portion of bone the cause of kyphosis

an area of fat storage

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71

Which of the following can be found in areas of movement? hematopoiesis cartilage yellow marrow red marrow

cartilage

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72

The skeletal system is made of ________. A. muscles and tendons B. bones and cartilage C. vitreous humor D. minerals and fat

bones and cartilage

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73

Most of the bones of the arms and hands are long bones; however, the bones in the wrist are categorized as ________. flat bones short bones sesamoid bones irregular bones

short bones

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74

Sesamoid bones are found embedded in ________. joints muscles ligaments tendons

tendons

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75

Bones that surround the spinal cord are classified as ________ bones. irregular sesamoid flat short

irregular

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76

Which category of bone is among the most numerous in the skeleton? long bone sesamoid bone short bone flat bone

long bone

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77

Long bones enable body movement by acting as a ________. counterweight resistive force lever fulcrum

lever

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78

Which of the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis? bone growth bone remodeling hematopoiesis shock absorption

hematopoeisis

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79

The diaphysis contains ________. the metaphysis fat stores spongy bone compact bone

fat stores

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80

The fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of the bone is the ________. periosteum epiphysis endosteum diaphysis

periosteum

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81

Which of the following are incapable of undergoing mitosis? osteoblasts and osteoclasts osteocytes and osteoclasts osteoblasts and osteocytes osteogenic cells and osteoclasts

osteoblasts and osteocytes

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82

Which cells do not originate from osteogenic cells? osteoblasts osteoclasts osteocytes osteoprogenitor cells

osteoprogenitor cells

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83

Which of the following are found in compact bone and cancellous bone? Haversian systems Haversian canals lamellae lacunae

lacunae

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84

Which of the following are only found in cancellous bone? canaliculi Volkmann's canals trabeculae calcium salts

trabeculae

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85

The area of a bone where the nutrient foramen passes forms what kind of bone marking? a hole a facet a canal a fissure

a hole

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86

Why is cartilage slow to heal? A. because it eventually develops into bone B. because it is semi-solid and flexible C. because it does not have a blood supply D. because endochondral ossification replaces all cartilage with bone

because it does not have a blood supply

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87

Why are osteocytes spread out in bone tissue? A. They develop from mesenchymal cells. B. They are surrounded by osteoid. C. They travel through the capillaries. D. Formation of osteoid spreads out the osteoblasts that formed the ossification centers.

formation of osteoid spreads out the osteoblasts that formed the ossification centers

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88

In endochondral ossification, what happens to the chondrocytes? A. They develop into osteocytes. B. They die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity. C. They grow and form the periosteum. D. They group together to form the primary ossification center.

they die in the calcified matrix that surrounds them and form the medullary cavity

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89

Which of the following bones is (are) formed by intramembranous ossification? the metatarsals the femur the ribs the flat bones of the cranium

flat bones of the cranium

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90

Bones grow in length due to activity in the ________. epiphyseal plate perichondrium periosteum medullary cavity

epiphyseal plate

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91

Bones grow in diameter due to bone formation ________. in the medullary cavity beneath the periosteum in the epiphyseal plate within the metaphysis

beneath the periosteum

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92

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of zones in the epiphyseal plate? A. proliferation, reserved, maturation, calcification B. maturation, proliferation, reserved, calcification C. calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved D. calcification, reserved, proliferation, maturation

calcification, maturation, proliferation, reserved

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93

A fracture can be both ________. A. open and closed B.open and transverse C. transverse and greenstick D. greenstick and comminuted

open and transverse

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94

How can a fractured diaphysis release fat globules into the bloodstream? A. The bone pierces fat stores in the skin. B. The yellow marrow in the diaphysis is exposed and damaged. C. The injury triggers the body to release fat from healthy bones. D. The red marrow in the fractured bone releases fat to heal the fracture.

yellow marrow in the diaphysis is exposed and damaged

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95

In a compound fracture, ________. A. the break occurs at an angle to the bone B. the broken bone does not tear the skin C. one fragment of broken bone is compressed into the other D. broken bone pierces the skin

broken bone pierces the skin

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96

The internal and external calli are replaced by ________. hyaline cartilage trabecular bone osteogenic cells osteoclasts

trabecular bone

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97

The first type of bone to form during fracture repair is ________ bone. compact lamellar spongy dense

spongy

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98

Wolff's law, which describes the effect of mechanical forces in bone modeling/remodeling, would predict that ________ a right-handed pitcher will have thicker bones in his right arm compared to his left. a right-handed cyclist will have thicker bones in her right leg compared to her left. a broken bone will heal thicker than it was before the fracture. a bed-ridden patient will have thicker bones than an athlete.

a right-handed pitcher will have thicker bones in his right arm compared to his left

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99

Calcium cannot be absorbed from the small intestine if ________ is lacking. vitamin D vitamin K calcitonin fluoride

vitamin D

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100

Which one of the following foods is best for bone health? carrots liver leafy green vegetables oranges

leafy green vegetables

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