COMPSCI 1101 ( SIR JAN) ( 2ND TERM)

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5 types of Operators

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5 types of Operators

• Assignment • Arithmetic • Relational • Logical • Special

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is an syntactically correct combinations of operands and operators.

Expression

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They both have a TYPE and VALUE

Operators and Expressions

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Two basic types of arithmetic operators:

Unary and Binary

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An operator that only requires one operand

Unary Operator

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An operator that requires two operands

Binary Operator

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There are only _____ arithmetic operator, and ______ arithmetic operators.

1 unary, 5 binary

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Rules which determine precisely how expressions are evaluated

Rules of Precedence and Associativity

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Terms which are always evaluated first

Expressions within the Parenthesis ( )

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In ______ , all decimal portions of numbers are lost (or truncated).

Integer Arithmetic

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Evaluates an arithmetic expression consisting of an operator and two integer operands.

Integer Arithmetic

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Characterized by : variable = expression

Assignment Operator

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Basic operator in C

Equal sign (=)

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Can be used more than once in an expression

Assignment Operator

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An assumption on which tests the validity or effect of something else

Condition

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Are used to represent true or false because there is no actual boolean or logical data type in C

Integers

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An expression that is either true (represented by 1) or false (represented by 0)

Condition

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Are used to test specific conditions and requires the use of two operands

Relational Operator

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Operators such as:
!=
==
<
>

Relational Operator

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Relational Operators == and != are often referred to as-

Equality Operators

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Connects two or more relational expressions into one or reverse the logic of an expression.

Logical Operators

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represents a non-zero value (can be negative or positive numbers, float, character, string)

True

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represents a zero value (integer or float value)

False

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symbol used as an increment operator to increment or add 1 to the operand value

Double Plus Symbol (++)

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value is first incremented and then used inside the expression

Pre-Increment Operator

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value is first used in an expression and then incremented

Post-Increment Operator

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increment and decrement operators are considered as _____ since they require only one operand

Unary Operator

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symbol used as an decrement operator to decrement or subtract 1 to the operand value

Double Minus Symbol (--)

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value is first decremented and then used inside the expression

Pre-Decrement Operator

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value if first used in an expression and then decremented

Post-Decrement Operator

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operators used in special situations

Special Operator

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5 types of special operator

Reference Operator Dereference Operator SizeOf Operator Ternary Operator Comma Operators

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returns the address of the variable

Reference Operator

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symbol used as a reference operator

&

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returns the value of a variable pointed by the specified pointer

Dereference Operator

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symbol used as a dereference operator

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used to determine or compute the operand's size in bytes

SizeOf Operator

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the size of int data type in the TurboC application, as it is a 16-bit-based application

2 bytes

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the size of int data type in today's compilers (e.g., MinGW GCC Compiler)

4 bytes

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size of char data type

1 byte

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size of float data type

4 bytes

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size of double data type

8 bytes

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helps on creating a short way of writing conditional statements

Ternary Operator

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syntax of ternary operator

condition ? S1 (True) : S2 (False)

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comma can be used as a ____ or as a ____

Separator, Operator

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has the least precedence of all C operators

Comma Operator

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returns the rightmost value of an expression but first evaluate the rest of the expressions and discard their values

Comma Operator

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way of converting one datatype to another

Type Conversion

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automatically done by the compiler

Implicit Type Conversion

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in the implicit type conversion, datatypes in the expression will be converted into the ________ datatype used within the expression

Largest

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basic datatype upgrade sequence (least to greatest)

char -> int -> float -> double

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specifies on which datatype to be converted

Explicit Type Conversion

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explicit type conversion is also called as _______

Type Casting

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There are three (3) basic classifications of statements in C, and actually, there are very few statements of each type.

PROGRAM STATEMENTS

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(3) basic classifications of statements in C,

Primitives Decisions Loops

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3 type of Primitive statements

Null Statement Simple Statement Compound Statement

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  • is made up of a null expression followed by a semicolon.

  • a null expression is an empty expression

( ; )

Null Statement

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  • Expression and function call statements expression; function_call();

Simple Statement

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  • or also called as block is formed by placing more than one statement inside curly braces ({}). { statement; statement; }

Compound Statement

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Conditional branches - make decision before branching: and its 2 type

Decision Statements

Single-decision branch Multi-decision branch

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Single-decision branch - ____

  • if/else

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Multi-decision branch

– switch/case

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Decision statements are actually part of a larger category statements known as ??

branches

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2 kinds of branch statements?

Conditional branches

Unconditional branches

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involves making one or more decisions before branching, and are thus referred to as single-decision or multi-decision branches.

Conditional branches

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direct branches which involve no decision. The goto statement is an example of an unconditional branch.

Unconditional branches

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The___ statement is a conditional, single-decision branch.

if

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The if statement has the general format of ?

if(expression) statement;

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IF STATEMENTS may be a ____ statement or ___ statement.

simple compound

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it allows you to check between multiple test expressions and execute different statements.

IF ELSE IF STATEMENTS

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a conditional, multi-decision branch. The previous example of successive comparison of equality or value of the operand is so common in programming, a special construct exist in C to handle such comparison.

SWITCH-CASE STATEMENTS

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____ is evaluated and its value is compared.

Expression

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The expression and the constant compared against must be an _____ constants or expressions. They may NOT contain variables.

integer or character

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The default case is optional, but if it exists there can be ____. It may occur anywhere in the list of case clauses but usually occur at the end

only one

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One of the fundamental properties of a computer is its ability to repetitively execute a set of statements.

ITERATIVE STATEMENTS

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These looping capabilities enable the programmer to develop concise programs containing repetitive processes that could otherwise require thousands of program statements to perform.

ITERATIVE STATEMENTS

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C contains three looping constructs:

The while statement

The for statements

The do/while statements

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The _____ statements may be described as test-before-execute. If the controlling condition results initially to a zero or false value, the body of the loop is never executed.

while and for

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The ____statement on the other hand may be considered as execute-before-test. The body of the loop is always executed at least once.

do-while

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The _____is used to execute a statement as long as a condition remains true.

with a syntax of

While (expression){ //statement }

while loop

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The conditional expression, of course, may be a _____ or ____.

relational or arithmetic

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_____ is usually used when the number of times the loop must be executed is not known in advance.

while loop

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The ____ is generally used for counted loops.

for statement

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The ______ will execute a statement and then evaluate a conditional expression.

do-while loop

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The statements____ and ___ are used to interrupt the normal flow of loops and the switch statement.

break AND continue

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The ____ is similar to the break statement, except it does not cause the loop to terminate. Rather it causes the loop to be continued.

continue statement

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The ____ causes the flow of the program to branch to the statement immediately following the appropriate label.

goto statement

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A _____is a name that is formed with the same rules in identifiers and must be immediately followed by a colon.

label

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The _____ interrupts the normal sequential flow of a program, without involving a decision.

goto statement

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Since goto statement is an example of _____ it is difficult to use without the help of conditional branch statements.

unconditional branch

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We can properly use goto statements by using some of the _____to avoid infinite looping execution.

conditional branches

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