Radiographic Imaging Mod 4

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_______________ is the positive side of the x-ray tube, serves as a target surface for electrons from the filament and conducts high voltage from the cathode back to the generator

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_______________ is the positive side of the x-ray tube, serves as a target surface for electrons from the filament and conducts high voltage from the cathode back to the generator

anode

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_______________ is the reduction in the number of x-ray photons as the beam passes through matter

attenuation

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_______________ is the number of nuclear protons in an atom unique to each element

atomic number

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_______________ is the amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the atom

binding energy

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_______________ is the negative side of the x-ray tube, produces electrons to accelerate to the anode

cathode

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_______________ is the weighted average atomic number for the different elements of a material

effective atomic number

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_______________ is the small coil of thin tungsten wire

filament

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_______________ is an unintended optical density on an image that reduces contrast due to light/chemical exposure

fog

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_______________ is the number of waves that passes a particular point in a given time frame

frequency

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_______________ is the initial photon from the primary beam

incident photon

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_______________ is the initial electron from the cathode

incident electron

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_______________ is an atom that has gained or lost an electron

ion

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_______________ is a small bundle of energy (electromagnetic energy) aka quantum

photon

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_______________ is an artifact caused by unintentional exposure to radiation

radiation fog

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_______________ is x-rays scattered back in the opposite or right angle direction to the primary beam

scatter radiation

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_______________ is penetrating, ionizing electromagnetic energy

x-ray

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_______________ is made between anode and cathode's electrons, so it is why the electrons move across the x-ray tube at _______________ speed

potential difference, 1/2 the speed of light

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99% of photon production is _______________ and 1% is _______________ and _______________

infrared, characteristic and bremstrallung

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_______________ shows photon emissions at their energies, majority of photons are at _______________ of set kV

emission spectrum, 1/3

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_______________ when incident photon travels through patient w/o hitting anything - creates black spots on radiograph. What makes our pictures. It has no charge, no ionization

transmission

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more transmission happens when _______ atomic parts, ________ kVp (travels straighter), and _______ parts

low, high, thin

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less transmission happens when _________ atomic number, ________ kVp, and _________ parts

high, low, thick

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transmission is dependent on /

kV, energy

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_______________ gets absorbed by either knocking out electron or trying to knock out electron. Mainly happens with ____-shell electrons. Loses all its energy knocking out electron.

photo-electric effect, k

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a _______________ is a bundle of energy, so it doesn't exist anymore when hitting k-shell electron in PE effect. The energy is transferred to the electron that was knocked out, so photon can't make it to film and this creates _______________ spots on radiograph

photon, white

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_______________ _______________ in photo-electric effect lose all their energy or it's scatter

incident photons

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more photo electric = _________ kV, _________ parts, and ________ atomic number

less, thicker, higher

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less photo electric = ________ kV, ________ parts, _________ atomic number

more, thinner, lower

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for PE it is the incoming photon _____ shell binding energy = ______________

minus, electron lost's energy

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_______________ is when patient's make radiation/photons from the empty shell that is filled after losing it's. electron. (Characteristic radiation made inside what we radiate)

secondary radiation

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classical scatter or coherent is not _______________ or doesn't make atom lose electron. It is considered this because it only happens at ______ keV or less. (Does not get through)

ionizing, 10

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secondary radiation undergoes another PE affect with in _______________ of patient tissue

1-2 cm

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_______________ goes in any direction

scatter

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in classical or coherent scatter, either the electron in a shell is jiggled and releases the same amount of energy to return to equilibrium which is _______________ or the whole atom is jiggled by incident photon and releases same amount of energy to return to equilibrium which is _______________ (the energy released from both is a different photon than the incident photon)

thompson, rayleigh

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_______________ radiation is from the tube

primary

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_______________ is caused by incident photon's energy not being fully absorbed or trasferred. -why we wear lead shielding -same photon from x-ray tube

compton scatter

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_______________ is the number one occupational dose source

compton scatter

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in _______________, the majority of the time is happening on outershell electrons due to _______________

compton scattering, low binding energies

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_______________ is caused by forward scatter which lowers contrast, or ruins white areas

radiation fog

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_______________ happens after vacant electrons get filled

secondary radiation

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more scatter and less contrast happens when.... _______ matter ________ part density _________ field size _______ kV

more, more, more, more

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scatter _______________ contrast

decreases

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scatter can also be called _______________

noise

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does atomic number affect scatter?

no, but part density does

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thicker/bigger patient = _______________ scatter (comptom)

more

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secondary radiation travels _____________ than undergoes ____________

1-2 cm, Photoelectric effect

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_______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses less energy, _______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses half it's energy, _______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses more energy

forward, side, back

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_______________ scatter is what tech is most worried about for occupational dose

side

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_______________ absorption is based off of object/part thickness, compositon

differential

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_______________ is the average of atomic number's of the elements something is made out of

effective atomic number

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_______________ effective atomic number is 6.46 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.51 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.64 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.78 _______________ effective atomic number 12.31

fat, water, muscle, air, bone

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why does air look different in radiographs than water and muscle whose effective atomic number are about the same?

it is in a different state (gaseous)

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osteolytic = ________ transmission or go ________ in technique. Less PE

more, down

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osteoblastic and edema = __________ photoelectric effect or go _____ in technique. Absorption = _____ Less transmission

more, up, more

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___________ kV = more compton scatter

higher

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Differential absorption

Different degrees of absorption in different tissues that results in image contrast and formation of the x-ray image (thick v.s thin tissue)

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In compton scatter _______ have energy left over after knocking out ____ _____

photons, outer shells

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Back scatter has ______ energy left

less

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Side scatter has _____ energy left

half

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Forward scatter has _____ energy left

majority

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Compton scatter ________ patient dose, _______ bystander dose, and _______ image quality

increases, increases, reduces

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