AP GOV UNIT 2 VOCAB

studied byStudied by 60 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

pork barrel spending

1 / 87

Tags and Description

Flashcards for the whole vocab of AP GOV UNIT 2

88 Terms

1

pork barrel spending

legislation that directs specific funds to projects within districts or states

New cards
2

Logrolling

trading of votes on legislation by members of Congress to get their earmarks passed into legislation

New cards
3

Oversight

the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies

New cards
4

constinuency

a body of voters in a specified area who elect a representative to a legislative body.

New cards
5

Apportionment

the process of allotting congressional seats to each state according to its proportion of the population, following the decennial census

New cards
6

Redistricting

states' redrawing of boundaries of electoral districts following each census

New cards
7

Gerrymandering

the intentional use of redistricting to benefit a specific interest or group of voters

New cards
8

partisan gerrymandering

drawing of district boundaries into strange shapes to benefit a political party

New cards
9

majority-minorty districts

districts were the majority of people are from a minority group

New cards
10

Malapportionment

the uneven distribution of the population among legislative districts

New cards
11

Incumbency

being already in office as opposed to running for the first

New cards
12

incumbency advantage

institutional advantages held by those already in office who are trying to fend off challengers in an election

New cards
13

Speaker of the house

the leader of the House of Representatives, chosen by an election of its members

New cards
14

Political Action Committee

an organization that raises money for candidates and campaigns

New cards
15

House majority leader

the person who is the second in command of the House of Representitives

New cards
16

whip

a member of Congress, chosen by their party members, whose job is to ensure party unity and discipline

New cards
17

minority leader

the head of the party with the second highest number of seat in Congress, chosen by the party's members

New cards
18

Senate majority leader

the person who has the most power in the Senate and is the head of the party with the most seats

New cards
19

Committee chair

leader of a congressional committee who has authority over the committee's agenda

New cards
20

Discharge petition

a motion filed by a member of Congress to move a bill out of committee and onto the floor of the House of Representatives for a vote

New cards
21

House Rules Committee

a powerful committee that determines when a bill will be subject to debate and vote on the House floor, how long the debate will last, and whether amendments will be allowed on the floor

New cards
22

Committee of the Whole

consists of all members of the House and meets in the House chamber but is governed by different rules, making it easier to consider complex and controversial legislation

New cards
23

Hold

a delay placed on legislation by a senator who objects to a bill

New cards
24

unanimous consent agreement

an agreement in the Senate that sets the terms for consideration of a bill

New cards
25

Filibuster

a tactic through which an individual senator may use the right of unlimited debate to delay a motion or postpone action on a piece of legislation

New cards
26

Cloture

a procedure through which senators can end debate on a bill and proceed to action, provided 60 senators agree to it

New cards
27

Veto

the power of a president to reject a bill passed by Congress, sending it back to the originating branch with objections

New cards
28

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

the executive branch office that assists the president in setting national spending priorities

New cards
29

entitlement program

a program that provides benefits for those who qualify under the law, regardless of income

New cards
30

mandatory spending

spending required by existing laws that is "locked in" the budget

New cards
31

discretionary spending

spending for programs and policies at the discretion of Congress and the president

New cards
32

budget surplus

the amount of money remaining when the government takes in more than it spends

New cards
33

budget deficit

the shortfall when a government takes in less money than it spends

New cards
34

national debt

the total amount of money that a country's government has borrowed, by various means.

New cards
35

delegate role

the idea that the main duty of a member of Congress is to carry out constituents' wishes

New cards
36

trustee role

the idea that members of Congress should act as trustees, making decisions based on their knowledge and judgement

New cards
37

politico role

representation where members of Congress balance their choices with the interests of their constituents and parties in making decisions

New cards
38

Bipartisanship

agreement between the parties to work together in Congress to pass legislation

New cards
39

Gridlock

a slowdown or halt in Congress's ability to legislate and overcome divisions, especially those based on partisanship

New cards
40

divided government

control of the presidency and one or both chambers of Congress split between two major parties

New cards
41

Lame duck period

period at the end of a presidential term when Congress may block presidential initiatives and nominees

New cards
42

Executive Branch

the branch of government that carries out laws

New cards
43

formal or enumerated powers

powers expressly granted in the Constitution

New cards
44

informal powers

powers not laid out in the Constitution but used to carry out presidential duties

New cards
45

treaty

an agreement with a foreign government negotiated by the president and requiring a two-thirds vote in the Senate to ratify

New cards
46

State of the Union Address

the annual speech from the president to Congress updating that branch on the state of national affairs

New cards
47

pocket veto

an informal veto caused when the president chooses not to sign a bill within ten days, during a time when Congress has adjourned at the end of a session

New cards
48

presidential pardon

presidential authority to release individuals convicted of a crime from legal consequences and set aside punishment for a crime

New cards
49

executive privilege

a right claimed by presidents to keep certain conversations, records, and transcripts confidential from outside scrutiny, especially that of Congress

New cards
50

executive agreement

an agreement between a president and another nation that does not have the same durability in the American system as a treaty but does not require Senate ratification

New cards
51

Signing statement

written comments issued by presidents while signing a bill into law that usually consist of political statements or reasons for signing the bill but that may also include a president's interpretation of the law itself

New cards
52

Executive order

policy directives issued by presidents that do not require congressional approval

New cards
53

War Powers Resolution

a law passed over President Nixon's veto that restricts the power of the president to maintain troops in combat for more than sixty days without congressional authorization

New cards
54

Impeachment

the process of removing a president from office, with articles of impeachment issued by a majority vote in the House of Representatives, followed by a trial in the Senate, with a two-thirds vote necessary to convict and remove

New cards
55

Executive Office of the President (EOP)

a collection of offices within the White House organization designed mainly to provide information to the president

New cards
56

bargaining and persuasion

an informal tool used by the president to persuade members of Congress to support their policy initiatives

New cards
57

Bully Pulpit

presidential appeals to the public to pressure other branches of government to support their policies

New cards
58

going public

a tactic through which presidents reach out directly to the American people with the hope that the people will, in turn, put pressure upon their representatives and senators to press for a president's policy goals

New cards
59

Federal Judiciary

the branch of the federal government that interprets the laws of the nation

New cards
60

Supreme Court

the highest level of the federal judiciary, which was established in Article III of the Constitution and serves as the highest court in the nation

New cards
61

original jurisdiction

the authority of a court to act as the first court to hear a case, which includes the finding of facts in the case

New cards
62

appellate jurisdiction

the authority of a court to hear and review decisions made by lower courts in that system

New cards
63

Federalist No. 78

argument by Alexander Hamilton that the federal judiciary would be unlikely to infringe upon rights and liberties but would serve as a check on the other two branches

New cards
64

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

a Supreme Court decision that established judicial review over federal laws

New cards
65

Judicial Review

the authority of the Supreme Court to strike down a law or executive action if it conflicts with the Constitution

New cards
66

Criminal law

a category of law covering actions determined to harm the community

New cards
67

Civil law

a category of law covering cases involving private rights and relationships between individuals and groups

New cards
68

Federal district courts

the lowest level of the federal judiciary; these courts usually have original jurisdiction in cases that start at the federal level

New cards
69

Federal courts of appeals

the middle level of the federal judiciary; these courts review and hear appeals from the federal district courts

New cards
70

precedent

a judicial decision that guides future courts in handling similar cases

New cards
71

stare decisis

the practice of letting previous legal decisions stand

New cards
72

majority opinion

binding Supreme Court opinions, which serve as precedent for future cases

New cards
73

concurring opinion

an opinion that agrees with the majority decision, offering different or additional reasoning, that does not serve as precedent

New cards
74

dissenting opinion

an opinion that disagrees with the majority opinion and does not serve as precedent

New cards
75

judicial restraint

a philosophy of constitutional interpretation that justices should be cautious in overturning laws

New cards
76

judicial activism

a philosophy of constitutional interpretation that justices should wield the power of judicial review, sometimes creating bold new policies

New cards
77

federal bureaucracy

the departments and agencies within the executive branch that carry out the laws of the nation

New cards
78

bureaucrat

an official employed within a government bureaucracy

New cards
79

political patronage

filling of administrative positions as a reward

New cards
80

Pendleton Act

an act of Congress that created the first United States Civil Service Commission to draw up and enforce rules on hiring, promotion, and tenure of office within the civil service (also known as Civil Service Reform Act of 1883)

New cards
81

federal civil service

the merit-based bureaucracy, excluding the armed forces and political appointments

New cards
82

Merit system

a system of hiring and promotion based on competitive testing results, education, and other qualifications rather than politics and personal connections

New cards
83

Iron Triangle

coordinated and mutually beneficial activities of the bureaucracy, Congress, and interest groups to achieve shared policy goals

New cards
84

Issues Network

webs of influence between interest groups, policymakers, and policy advocates

New cards
85

Implementation

the bureaucracy's role in putting into action the laws that Congress has passed

New cards
86

bureaucratic discretion

the power to decide how a law is implemented and to decide what Congress meant when it passed a law

New cards
87

Regulation

the process through which the federal bureaucracy makes rules that have the force of law, to carry out the laws passed by Congress

New cards
88

bureaucratic adjudication

when the federal bureaucracy settles disputes between parties that arise over the implementation of federal laws or determines which individuals or groups are covered under a regulation or program

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 108 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 521 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2596 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard91 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard118 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard95 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard178 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)