GA Milestones Biology

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Macromolecules

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Macromolecules

Carbohydrates, Protein, Nucleic Acid, Lipids

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Lipids

Provides an extended source of energy and insulation Makes up the phospholipid bilayer

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Carbohydrates

Used for quick energy, to store energy, main source of energy

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Nucleic Acids (DNA/RNA)

Makes up and contains genetic information

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Proteins

Reliable source of energy Controls the rate of reactions (enzymes) Regulates cell processes

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Glycogen

energy storage in heterotrophs

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Cellulose

straight chain (tough)

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Chitin

used to produce hard exoskeleton

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CHO

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (Carbohydrates)

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CHO

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (Lipids)

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CHON

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen (Protein)

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CHONP

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous (Nucleic Acid)

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Competitive (Enzymes)

enters an active site

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Noncompetitive (Enzymes)

enters somewhere else on the enzyme

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Active Site

specific substrate enzymes bind to

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Substrate

a reactant that binds to an active site of an enzyme (think key & lock)

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Cell Theory

cells are the basic unit of life all new cells come from preexisting cells all living things are made up of at least one cell

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Prokaryotic Cells

no nucleus hereditary information flows freely in the cytoplasm no membrane bound organelles

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Eukaryotic

has a nucleus bigger in size and more complex has membrane-bound organelles

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Nucleus

regulates and controls the cell’s activities (like a brain)

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Nucleolus

creates ribosomes

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Smooth ER

starts the process of lipid synthesis

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Rough ER

ribosomes attached to its surface (creating a rough, bumpy look)

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Ribosomes

creates protein

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Golgi Apparatus/Body

packages and delivers proteins in vesicles

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Vesicle

sac-like structures that surrounds a protein to be delivered

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Lysosomes

contains enzymes that break down waste (suicidal bag or suicide sac)

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Mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, supplies ATP and energy to the cell

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Cell Membrane

regulates on what comes in and out of a cell, gatekeeper

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Cell Wall

gives shape and structure to a plant cell

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Chloroplast

assists in photosynthesis, and in the creation

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Centrioles

assist with the even distribution of chromosomes

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Cytoskeleton

gives a cell structure and shape

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Cell Membrane

composed of lipids and proteins, which create the phospholipid bilayer has "pores” on its surface to allow molecules like oxygen, water, or carbon dioxide to diffuse across the cell membrane protein channels and carbohydrate chains can be located

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Phospholipid Bilayer

has a polar head and a nonpolar tail

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Polar Head

hydrophilic, which attracts water

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Non-polar Head

hydrophobic, which repels water

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Active Transport

allows larger molecules to enter in and out of the cell requires the usage of energy or ATP two types of active transport: endocytosis and exocytosis.

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Passive Transport

allows small molecules to enter in and out of the cell requires no energy to be used three types of passive transport: simple diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion

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Endocytosis

endo- meaning inside, larger substance/molecule is transported into the cell

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Exocytosis

exo- meaning outside, a larger substance/molecule is transported out the cell

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Simple Diffusion

movement of molecules through a semipermeable membrane

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Facilitated Diffusion

spreads over an area with assistance

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Osmosis

movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane

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Photosynthesis

process by which water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight is turned into glucose and oxygen occurs in the chloroplast of a plant cell [6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6H2O (water) + light → C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)]

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Light Cycle

occurs in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast chlorophyll uses light energy=converts it to chemical energy water splits=creates hydrogen and oxygen hydrogen is moved to calvin cycle oxygen is released NADPH (electron carrier) and ATP is then used for the Calvin Cycle

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Calvin Cycle

part of photosynthesis that is light-independent (dark cycle) occurs in the stroma NADPH is turned into NADP+ remaining energy is turned into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide to make glucose

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Cellular Respiration

process by which glucose and oxygen get turned into water, carbon dioxide, and energy (ATP) occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of a cell (C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP)

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Glycolysis

process of glycosis is meant to break down glucose. “glyco-” meaning glucose “-lysis” meaning to break down occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell glucose breaks down into 2 pyruvate acid anaerobic process NADH (electron carrier) is formed and released hydrogen is released and NADPH is made END Products: 2 pyruvate acids, 2 ATP, and NADH

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Krebs Cycle

occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria pyruvate acid from glycolysis is broken down to carbon dioxide does not require the usage of oxygen releases some sort of energy for the electron transport END PRODUCTS OF KREBS CYCLE: 2 ATP, FADH, and NADP

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Fermentation

anaerobic process transforms sugar into gases (carbon dioxide) or ethanol (alcohol) does not create ATP skips Krebs Cycle carbon dioxide is created and diffuses out of the cell.

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Fermentation end product (plants)

ethanol (alcohol)

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Fermentation end product (animals)

lactic acid or aerobic respiration

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Electric Transport Chain (ETC)

aerobic process inner membrane of the cristae (mitochondria) ATP, NADH, and FADH from citric cycle is used here NADH and FADH is moved to ETC produces energy (ATP) oxygen + hydrogen + energy = water remaining energy makes 32-34 ATP 36-38 ATP created END PRODUCTS: H2O, ATP, CO2

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Cell Division

reproduction of one or more parent cells to create offspring cells

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Mitosis

used for cell repair, replace, and reproduction of cells

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Meiosis

formation of reproductive cells (sperm and egg cells)

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Cell Cycle

a type of asexual reproduction. results in two new genetically identical daughter cells cell cycle only occurs in eukaryotic cells

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4 Phases of Cell Cycle

Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis Checkpoints

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Why Do Cells Divide?

for growth, repairment, replacement, and reproduction of cells

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G1

all organelles and cytoplasmic components, including centrioles, replicate

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S Phase

DNA replication occurs

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G2

necessary enzymes are created (to assist in cell division)

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Prophase (P)

prepares to undergo cell division (chromosomes become visible, cytoskeleton disassembles and spindle fibers begin to form, centrioles migrate to opposite ends of the cell)

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Metaphase (meta=middle)

all chromosomes are aligned at the equator (middle) of the cell.

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Anaphase (ana=away)

sister chromatids are pulled apart from each other

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Telophase

nuclear envelope reforms and reappears as the spindle apparatus disassemble

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Cytokinesis

two new daughter cells are formed

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1st Checkpoint

decides whether the cell proceeds or stops (G1 to S)

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2nd Checkpoint

Decides the cells to proceed or stop to mitosis (G2 to M)

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3rd Checkpoint

ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the spindle fibers

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Asexual Reproduction

one parent does not take a lot of energy or time rapid reproduction allows population to claim their niche (role) offspring is 100% identical to the parent little to no genetic variation

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Sexual Reproduction

involves two parents offspring gets half and half from each parent genetic variation and offspring is genetically different from parents formation of gametes occur (sperm and egg cells) allows better adaptation to environment through genetic variation

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Binary fission

DNA is replicated, separated, and split into two new daughter cells usually occurs in prokaryotes or single celled organisms

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Budding

outgrowth from parent, individual splits off, and lives independently (ex: hydra)

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Fragmentation

single parent breaks into parts, then regenerates into whole new individuals (planaria)

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Regeneration

when a body part breaks off, the organism will grow a new one (ex: starfish)

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Vegatative Propagation (plant cuttings)

plant relies on multicellular structures formed by parent plant

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Meiosis

the reproductive cells in an organism and defines who a person is. a form of cell division in which where gametes are produced gametes have half the number of chromosomes two divisions: meiosis I and meiosis II

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Interphase 1 (Meiosis)

chromosomes replicate each duplicated chromosome consist of two identical sister chromatids centriole pairs replicate

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Meiosis 1

purpose- divide homologous chromosomes Prophase 1- The cell prepares for division (nuclear membrane breaks down, spindle fibers assemble, duplicated chromosomes condense, homologous chromosomes pair up) Metaphase 1- homologous chromosomes align on cell equator Anaphase 1- homologous chromosomes separate from each other Telophase 1- Spindle fibers disassembles, cell begins to undergo cytokinesis

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Meiosis 2

purpose- divide sister chromatids Prophase II- The cell prepares for division (Centrioles and centrosomes move to opposite poles of cell, spindle fibers assemble) Metaphase II- chromosomes align along cell equator Anaphase II- Sister chromatids are pulled apart from each other Telophase II- Nuclear membranes form, spindle fibers break, cell undergoes cytokinesis

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DNA Structure

4 amino acids Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine

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Nucleotides

the basic units of structure in DNA. 3 components: Phosphate One nitrogenous base Sugar (deoxyribose)

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