isci 2001 midterm

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eye piece lens

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98 Terms
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eye piece lens

The lens you look through – normally 10x or 15x magnification

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coarse focus adjustment

Moves the lens up or down and adjusts focus

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fine focus adjustment

Moves the lens in order to make very small adjustments to gain better focus

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base

The bottom of the microscope used for stability

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high-power objective

For increased magnification – usually 10x, 40x and 100x magnification

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stage

Where the slide is held/placed

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diaphragm

Varies intensity of the light projected upwards onto the slide

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light source

Sends light onto the specimen/slide

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cell

smallest unit of organization of a living thing

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plasma membrane

what encloses a cell

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organelles

things within a cell that carry out specific functions

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unicellular

made of 1 cell-- bacteria, yeast (fungus), algae, paramecium

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multicellular

consisting of many cells organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems-- plants, animals

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organelles visible under microscope

nucleus, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, vacuole (in plants), sometimes chloroplast

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plant cell under microscope

more rigid (cell wall), vacuole visible, chloroplast

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plant organelles

chloroplast, cell wall, central vacuole

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pond v stream

pond water specimen had more living elements within them

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base pairing

A-T, G-C

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DNA structure

nitrogenous base, sugar, phosphate group

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codon

a specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for synthesizing a particular amino acid

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amino acid

what is formed during translation

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natural selection

traits and characters that improve survival of individuals within a population will increase

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peppered moths

textbook example of natural selection/ adapting to changing environment

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camouflage

disguise by camouflaging; exploit the natural surroundings to disguise something; physical adaptation that allows survival for species

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organism classification (in order)

domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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systematics

study of relationships between organisms

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homologous traits

when 2 organisms share a body structure that was passed down from a common ancestor

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analogous traits

organisms possess body structures that serve similar functions but arose independently during evolution

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domains

bacteria, eukarya, archaea

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bacteria

contains cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria

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archaea

contains halophiles and thermophiles

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eukarya

contains fungi, animals, plants, chromists, alveolates, rhodophytes, flagellates, basal protists

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list of kingdoms

animalia, plantae, fungi, protista, archaebacteria, eubacteria

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archaebacteria

live in extreme environments (in terms of salinity-halophiles, temperature-thermophiles, and methane content)

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examples of archaebacteria

bathyarchaeota, thermo coccusitoralis, halobacterium salinarium

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eubacteria

really small, no membrane bound organelles, single cell

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eubacteria examples

streptococcus, anabaeria, e. coli, lactobacillus bulgaris

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protista

eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds-- weird traits (span across other kingdoms)

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protista examples

micrasterias, craticula

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fungi

decomposers, heterotrophs, cell wall

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fungi examples

mushrooms, shelf fungus, yeast

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heterotroph

do not make own food; rely on outside source for energy

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plantae

cell wall, photosynthetic, multicellular, usually autotrophic

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autotroph

can make own energy from either chemical or solar energy

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animalia

multicellular heterotrophs

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animalia examples

nurse shark, octopus, turtle, rabbit, stink bug, snake, bat, bird, spider, squid, frog

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plantae examples

pine, sweetgum, mountain mint, cedar, moss, fern, grass, swamp lily

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phylum

in the animal kingdom, this is where organisms with and without backbone are split

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chordata

comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord

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cnidaria

has stinging nematocysts

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cnidaria examples

jellyfish, sea anemone

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porifera

organisms with pores

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porifera example

sponges

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nematoda

roundworms

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nematoda example

pig heartworm

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annelida

segmented worms

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annelida examples

earthworms and leeches

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platyhelminthes

flatworms

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platyhelminthes examples

sheep liver fluke, tape worms

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echinodermata

radially symmetrical marine invertebrates; organisms with spiny skin

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echinodermata examples

sea cucumber, starfish, sand dollar, sea urchin

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arthropoda

invertebrate organisms with jointed legs

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arthropoda examples

mantis, longhorned beetle, lychee stink bug, cockroach, bee, butterfly, moth, lubber grasshopper, stick bug, cricket, cicada, dragonfly, crawfish, crab, centipede spider

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mollusca

gastropods; bivalves; cephalopods

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gastropoda

snails and slugs and their relatives

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gastropoda example

whelk shell

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cephalopoda

body symmetry, prominent head, arms/ tentacles

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cephalopoda examples

squid, octopus, cuttlefish

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bivalve

marine or freshwater mollusks having a soft body with platelike gills enclosed within two shells hinged together

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bivalve examples

mussels, clams, oysters

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ichthes

class containing fishes

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bony fish

catfish, perch, swordtail fish

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jawless fish

east atlantic hagfish, lamprey

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cartilaginous fish

nurse shark, bull shark

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mammalia

class of warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by mammary glands in the female

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monotremes

mammals that lay eggs

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monotreme examples

echidna, platypus

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marsupial

mammals of which the females have a pouch containing the teats where the young are fed and carried

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marsupial examples

opossum, kangaroo, koala

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placental

mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials

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placental examples

rabbit, armadillo, raccoon, bat, deer, human

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reptilia

class of cold-blooded air-breathing vertebrates with completely ossified skeleton and a body usually covered with scales or horny plates; lay eggs on land

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reptilia examples

rattlesnake, water snake, alligator, turtle, lizard

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amphibia

the class of vertebrates that live on land but breed in water

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