PSYC 362 - Chapter 1 (book and lecture)

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plasticity

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45 Terms

1

plasticity

in nervous system, refers to change, flexibility, or adaptation, usually in response to an experience or learning

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2

neurons

  • NERVE CELL

  • information-processing and information-transmitting cells of nervous system

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3

neurogenesis

  • production of new neurons through division of neural stem cells

  • occurs in hippocampus and olfactory bulb and appears to play role in learning

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4

generalization

  • type of scientific explanation

  • (book def) general conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomena

  • (lecture def) deduction of general laws using results from experiments

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5

reduction

  • type of scientific explanation

  • (book def) phenomenon is described in terms of more elementary processes that underlie it

  • (lecture def) use of simple phenomena to explain more complicated phenomena

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6

dualism

belief that body is physical but mind (or soul) is not

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7

monism

belief that the world consists only of matter and energy and that the mind is a phenomenon produced by workings of nervous system

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8

epigenetics

changes to gene expression induced by environmental factors

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9

functionalism

  • (book def) principle that the best way to understand a biological phenomenon (behavior / physiological structure) is to try to understand its useful functions for organism

  • (lecture def) characteristics of an organism serve some useful function

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10

natural selection

  • (book def) process by which inherited traits that confer a selective advantage (increase animals likelihood to live / reproduce) become more prevalent in a population

  • (lecture def) characteristics that allow an organism to reproduce more successfully are passed on to offspring

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11

mutation

change in genetic information contained in chromosomes of sperm & eggs which can be passed on to organisms offspring - provides genetic variability

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12

selective advantage

characteristic of organism that permits it to produce more than average number of offspring of its species

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13

evolution

gradual change in structure and physiology of plant & animal species - generally producing more complex organisms as a result of natural selection

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14

neoteny

slowing of the process of maturation to allow more time for growth - particularly in development of large brains

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15

informed consent

process where researchers must inform any potential participant about - nature of research study, how data will be collected & stored, and what the anticipated benefits & costs of participating will be

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16

neuroethics

interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding implications of and developing best practices in ethics for neuroscience research

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17

why do we study brain/nervous system?

  • makes possible everything we do, experience, perceive

  • allows interaction between outer work and mind/process of thinking

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18

ultimate function of the brain is ______________

to control movement

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19

behavioral neuroscience (definition)

study of physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience

a.k.a - psychobiology or physiological psychology

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20

behavioral neuroscience (objective)

seeks to describe physical mechanisms of body that mediate our movements and mental activity

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21

consciousness

refers to self-awareness and the ability to communicate our thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and memories

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22

physiological approach to consciousness

consciousness is a physiological function like other forms of behavior, that can be affected by drugs, brain trauma, illness, etc.

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23

blindsight

blind patients are unable to see, but are able to reach for objects placed in their blind visual field

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24

contralateral

damage to visual system on one side of the brain will produce blindness in the opposite (___________) visual field

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25

corpus callosum

bundle of axons that interconnects two cerebral hemispheres

<p>bundle of axons that interconnects two cerebral hemispheres</p>
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26

callotomy

involves cutting corpus callosum to alleviate epileptic seizures

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27

cerebral commissurotomy (split-brain procedure)

  • surgeon opens skull, lays back brain's coverings, and with a cerebral retractor exposes the corpus callosum between the two hemispheres

  • surgeon snips through the CC severing communication between hemispheres and preventing transfer of seizures

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28

left brain attributes

  • thinking : abstract, linear, analytic

  • cognitive style : rational, logical

  • language : rich vocab, good grammar & syntax, pose

  • executive capacity : introspection, will, initiative, sense of self, focus on trees (details)

  • specialized functions : reading, writing, arithmetic, sensory-motor skills, inhibits psi

  • time experience : sequentially ordered, measured

  • spatial orientation : relatively poor

  • psychoanalytic aspects : secondary process, ego functions, consciousness, superego?

  • ideal prototype : aristotle, appollonian mode, marx, freud, koestlers commissar

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right brain attributes

  • thinking : concrete, holistic

  • cognitive style : intuitive, artistic

  • language : no grammar, syntax, prosody, poor vocab, metaphoric, verse

  • executive capacity : low sense of self, low initiative, focus on forest (whole pic)

  • specialized functions : three i's, rich dream imagery, good face and gestalt recognition, open to psi

  • time experience : "lived" time, primitive time sense

  • spatial orientation : superior, also for shapes, wire figures

  • psychoanalytic aspects : primary process, dream-work, free association, hallucinations?

  • ideal prototype : plato, dionysian mode, nietzche, jung, koestlers yogi

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30

goal of science

explain the phenomena under study

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31

hippocrates

hippocratic corpus - provided first statement about brain as controlling center for body

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32

aristotle

believed heart was seat of intellectual and perceptual functions - brain served to "cool" the heart

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33

galen

performed dissections, anatomical description of nerves, cerebrum v. cerebellum, animal spirits were stored in ventricles

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34

mind

unique human attribute that is not subject to laws of universe

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35

rene descartes

  • dualist / dualism

  • mind interacted with physical body through pineal body

  • viewed hydraulic pressure within nerves as basis for movement

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36

phrenology

individual development of cortex was reflected in bumps and depressions of the skill - more you used a particular faculty / more prominent a characteristic the bigger the respective bump

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doctrine of specific nerve energies

specific nerves carry messages from different sensations

person: johannes peter muller

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38

ablation

removal of discrete brain areas to assess role of brain in control of behavior

person: pierre flourens

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39

aphasia

inability to use or understand language (deficit in speech) because of a brain lesion

person: paul broca

<p>inability to use or understand language (deficit in speech) because of a brain lesion</p><p>person: paul broca</p>
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40

primary motor cortex

region of cortex that activates discrete muscles on opposite side of body

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41

redundancy

things are duplicated in brain to compensate for damage

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42

encephalization

higher functions added at front of nervous system

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43

hominids

  • humanlike apes that first appeared in africa

  • humans evolved from first

  • four surviving types : humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans

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44

behavioral neuroscientists

study physiology of behavioral phenomena in animals (& most have earned a Ph.D in psych or neuroscience)

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45

neurologists

physicians who diagnose and treat nervous system diseases

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