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fertilization occurs at the ( )

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146 Terms

1

fertilization occurs at the ( )

ampulla of fallopian tube.

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2

the oocyte completes meiosis II ( )

after sperm penetration

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3

it takes ( ) days from fertilization to implantation

6-7 days

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4

prolactin is secreted from ( ) lobe of pituitary gland

anterior

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5

( ) induces breast milk production and secretion

prolactin

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6

( ) occurs in mothers after giving birth because prolactin levels increase

postpartum amenorrhea

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7

implantation occurs at the ( ) stage of the embryo

blastocyst

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8

at implantation, ( ) invade into the uterine wall

trophoblast

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9

( ) produce hCG

syncytiotrophoblast

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10

pregnancy tests detect urinary ( )

hCG

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11

the fetus is highly vulnerable to teratogens during ( )

organogenesis

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12

umbilical venous blood contains ( ) oxygen than umbilical arterial blood

more

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13

the umbilical ( ) supplies blood from the fetus to placenta.

artery

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14

the umbilical cord contains ( ) umbilical artery/arteries and ( ) umbilical vein(s)

2, 1

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15

about ( )% of pregnancies end in a miscarriage

10-15

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16

( ) are detected in about 50-70% of miscarriages

chromosomal abnormalities

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17

( ) is useful for distinguishing between a threatened miscarriage and inevitable miscarriage

bleeding volume

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18

what are the subcategories of miscarriage?

threatened, inevitable, incomplete, complete, missed

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19

among tubal pregnancy, ampullar pregnancy is most common, followed by ( ) pregnancy.

isthmic

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20

chlamydia infection in the pelvis causes ( ).

ectopic pregnancy

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21

morning sickness begins around ( ) of gestation

5 weeks

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22

morning sickness peaks at around ( ) of gestation

8-10 weeks

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23

( ) is when symptoms of morning sickness become more severe and prolonged

hyperemesis gravidarum

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24

hyperemesis gravidarum can cause ( ) in blood volume

decrease

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25

the prevalence of ( ) is high among women with hyperemesis gravidarum

deep venous thrombosis

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26

the 1st stage of labor starts when

labor pains occur regularly (every 10 mins)

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27

the 1st stage of labor ends when

the cervix is fully dilated

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28

when is labor pain considered effective?

if cervical status progresses as a result of the pain

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29

the ( ) is clinically applied to evaluate a pregnant woman. it is based on changes in the cervix and the position of the baby's head

Bishop score

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30

when labor pains come ( ) times an hour, it indicates the beginning of labor

6

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31

the ( ) is palpable during the 1st stage of labor

coccyx, ischial spine, posterior fontanelle

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32

what does PROM stand for?

prelabor rupture of membrane

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33

when does PROM occur?

before full-term

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34

what can cause PROM?

chorioamnionitis

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35

when does normal ROM occur?

when the cervix is fully dilated

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36

when does the uterus return to its pre-pregnant size?

6-8 weeks after delivery

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37

breastfeeding helps the uterus to contract back to its original size. true or false?

true

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38

afterbirth pain can happen for ( ) after delivery

2 weeks

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39

( ) in NST shows that the fetus is healthy

acceleration

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40

it takes ( ) from follicle development to ovulation

4-6 months

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41

in the antral follicle, the oocyte is surrounded by ( ) cells

granulosa

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42

the activation of dormant primordial follicles arrest when the remaining follicle number goes under ( )

1000

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43

aromatase converts androgen to ( )

estrogen

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44

corpus luteum produces ( ) and ( )

estrogen and progesterone

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45

estradiol inhibits ( ) expression in the arcuate nucleus

Kiss-1

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46

( ) is the major cause of infertility in advanced maternal age

declining residual follicles and poor quality of oocytes

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47

( ) is often used to check a woman's ability to produce eggs that can be fertilized for pregnancy

AMH (anti-mullerian hormone) test

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48

primary ovarian insufficiency affects ( )% of women

1

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49

infertility is the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after ( ).

12 months or more of regular unprotected sex

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50

today, 1 in ( ) couples suffer with infertility

6

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51

with non-invasive prenatal tests, ( )% of antenatal diseases can be diagnosed

17

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52

amniocentesis is applied for mothers who are ( )

carriers of a X-linked recessive disorder or 35+ years old

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53

when is amniocentesis performed?

after 15 weeks of gestation (usually between 16-18 weeks)

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54

when can trans-abdominal ultrasonography be performed?

after 10-12 weeks of gestation

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55

the vertical transmission of cytomegalovirus can cause ( ) in the fetus

deafness and learning disabilities

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56

hydrops fetalis can be caused by

viral infection

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57

vertical transmission of syphilis can be prevented by ( )

taking antibiotics

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58

elevated blood sugar levels are associated with ( )

congenital malformations

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59

is the flu vaccine safe for pregnant women?

yes

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60

are NSAIDs safe for pregnant women?

no

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61

is amantadine safe for pregnant women?

no

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62

3 layers of the fetal membrane and which one is derived from the mother?

decidua (mother), chorion (fetus), amnion (fetus)

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63

changes occurring in the fetus within minutes after birth

constriction of the umbilical vessels, constriction of the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, and closure of the foramen ovale

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64

the heartbeat of the fetus can be detected after...

5-6 weeks of gestation

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65

at 9 weeks of gestation, the normal fetal heartbeat is

160-180

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66

umbilical hernia can occur at ( ) weeks of gestation

8-10

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67

what is presentation?

Direction of fetal trunk (体幹)(Relation of longitudinal axis of fetus and mother)

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68

what is position?

Direction of fetal back (facing left or right)

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69

what is attitude?

Degree of flexion of head (is it extended or flexed?)

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70

deiscribe the cardinal movement of the fetus during childbirth.

1st rotation: engagement, flexion, descent 2nd rotation: further descent and internal rotation 3rd rotation: complete extension of head 4th rotation: external rotation

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71

3 elements of labor?

power, passage, passenger.

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72

what is the normal attitude of fetus?

occiput (flexed)

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73

normal birthweight?

2500-4000

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74

excessively large infant

4000+

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75

low birth weight

1500-2500

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76

very low birth weight

1000-1500

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77

excessively low birthweight

-1000

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78

health risks of low birthweight babies in the future?

diabetes, hypertension (lifestyle related diseases)

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79

how is newborn condition evaluated?

APGAR score (heart rate, respiratory, muscle tone, reflex irritability, color)

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80

APGAR score is checked when?

immediately after birth, then 5-10 minutes after birth

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81

what is wharton's jelly?

jelly-like material inside the umbilical cord. Protects the umbilical arteries and vein.

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82

what is amniotic fluid index? what is the normal range?

measuring the depth of amniotic fluid via ultrasonography normal range: 5-25cm w

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83

what is station?

how far the baby descended through the birth canal

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84

healthy (reactive) acceleration?

fetal movement occurs twice within 20 mintues

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85

what is late deceleration?

sign to take the baby out as soon as possible by c-section

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86

what is variable deceleration?

when the fetal HR decreases >30 seconds after the uterus contracts

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87

what types of hormones are peptide hormones?

hypothalamic hormones

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88

what types of hormones are steroid hormones?

sex hormones and corticosteroids

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89

what types of hormones are amine hormones

catcholamines (epi and norepi) and thyroid hormones

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90

what % of infertility in couples is accredited to females?

30

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91

what % of infertility in couples is accredited to males?

30

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92

what are causes of male infertility?

spermatogenic dysfunction (83%), sperm transport disorder (14%), erection/ejaculation problems (3%)

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93

what are causes of female infertility?

unknown (49%), tubal (31%), ovulatory dysfunction (10%), uterine (3%).

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94

what is affected in type I reproductive dysfunction?

hypothalamus/pituitary (low levels of FSH and estrogen) severe amenorrhea.

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95

what is affected in type II reproductive dysfunction?

mild effect on hypothalamus (normal levels of hormones). presented w oligomenorrhea. most common.

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96

what is affected in type III reproductive dysfunction?

ovary (high FSH but low estrogen).

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97

what is affected in type IV reproductive dysfunction?

uterus. often amenorrhea deriving from uterine problems.

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98

other than FSH and estrogen levels, high levels of ( ) can also cause reproductive dysfunction

prolactin

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99

what type of reproductive dysfunction is PCOS? (polycystic ovary syndrome) what are some clinical presenting symptoms?

type II; oligo/anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism and acne)

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100

how can endometriosis result in the obstruction of the fallopian tube?

inflammation occurs, which leads to adhesion/scarring and the obstruction of the fallopian tube.

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