Biology 1 Unit 2

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2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH

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1

2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH

Products of glycolysis

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2

2 NADH, 2 Acetyl CoA

Products of pyruvate oxidation

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3

6NADH, 2FADH2, 2 ATP

Products of Citric Acid cycle

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4

A + B = AB Water is always produced

Explain what an anabolic reaction is and give an example. What is always produced?

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5

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Formula for photosynthesis

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6

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O

Formula for cellular respiration

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7

The potential energy is transferred to the ATP Synthase in the form of kinetic energy.

Explain how the potential energy in the H+ gradient is used to generate ATP from ADP+Pi

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8

A 20% T 20% C 30% G 30%

If you have 20% A in a sequence of DNA, what are the percentages of the other nucleotides?

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9

Chloroplasts, Chlorophyll is the pigment

What organelle carries out photosynthesis? What's the name of the pigment which is in this organelle?

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10

A) triangle G= -7kcal/mol Favorable

Which of the following Delta G are favorable the explain why they are or are not favorable A) triangle G= -7kcal/mol B) triangle G= 3kcal/mol

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11

Leading stands only need one RNA primer (okazaki fragments), while lagging strands need multiple of them. lagging strands = 3' to 5' leading strands= 5' to 3'

Explain the significance of the leading and lagging strands of DNA, as they relate to 3' and 5'.

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12

Heterotrophic prokaryotes

Which evolved first heterotrophic prokaryotes or photosynthetic ones?

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13

Yes, its in the chloroplasts

True or false? If it is true, write an explanation. Plants also have mitochondria

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14

Glycolysis - Cytoplasm CAC - In the matrix

Where does glycolysis occur? What about the citric acid cycle?

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15

A change in nucleotides, but due to redundancy of the genetic code, there's no change in amino acid identity

Silent mutation

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16

alter an original nucleotide sequence to a new one

single point mutation (SNP's)

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17

Insertion and deletion mutations shift the reading frame of genes.

Frameshift mutation

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18

Sequences of DNA that can cut or copy and paste themselves around the genome.

Transposons

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19

The active site is where the substrate binds. They can be inhibited via a competitive or non-competitive inhibitor.

What is an active site on an enzyme?

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20

Delta G is the change of energy in a reaction. The enzyme will bring into the reaction a negative △G which allows the reaction to proceed.

What is △G? How do enzymes allow reactions which are unfavorable to proceed?

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21

-proteins -unique structure/active site -Denature in extreme heat/pH -Lower activation energy of a reaction -One function/not dynamic -Cofactor/prosthetic group (non-protein component necessary for the enzyme

Properties of an enzyme

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22
  1. Pyruvate oxidation

  2. Beta oxidation of fatty acids

  3. Conversion or amino acids

What are the 3 ways to produce Acetyl-CoA? Explain the significance of Acetyl-CoA.

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23

When the competitive inhibitor binds to the substrate, the non competitive inhibitor can no longer bind to it. The non competitive inhibitor does not have a similar shape to the substrate

Describe on a molecular level how competitive and non-competitive inhibitors work with enzymes.

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24

The non-competitive inhibitor is not trying to bind the active site, which the substrate is trying to bind.

Why does substrate concentration not matter with a non-competitive inhibitor?

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25

5' - TAGGCTAGCTAGGGCTA - 3'

If you have a DNA sequence as seen below, what does the other strand look like? 3' - ATCCGATCGATCCCGAT- 5'

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26

2 new strands created have 1 strand from the original strand and the other from a newly synthesized strand.

Explain all of semi-conservative DNA replication with all enzymes.

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27

The 3' indicates that the chromosome base pairs will continue, and the 5' ends determine that it will end.

Explain the significance of the 3' and 5' ends of DNA

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28

Synthesize new telomere sequences. It is only observed in stem cell, and cancer cells

telomerase

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29

fix mismatches in DNA due to mistakes made by DNA polymerase 3. The polymerase enzyme makes a mistake approximately one in every 100 thousand base pair

Exonuclease and endonuclease enzymes

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30

Isomerase enzymes rearrange the connectivity of a molecule. Nothing is added or taken away. (INCOMPLETE)

Explain how an isomerase works. What is an isomer? Give an example of an isomer.

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31

Either take a phosphate from ATP and add it to an intermediate, or take a phosphate from an intermediate and add it to ADP to make ATP

Explain the possible functions of a kinase enzyme

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32

Calvin cycle which uses energy from compounds to create GA3P from CO2.

In photosynthesis what are light-independent reactions?

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33

Delta G measures the change of energy in a reaction, and when an enzyme is present, it speeds up the reaction (energy becomes faster). (ATP=Energy)

How does delta G relate to enzymes and ATP?

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34

Light reactions that use light energy to make ATP and NADPH.

What are the light dependent reactions?

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35

A process of building up larger molecules like proteins from component building blocks, in this case of proteins, amino acids. A water molecule is always produced. A + B = AB

Anabolic

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36

The process of breaking down larger molecules like proteins into smaller building blocks, in this case, amino acids. Water molecule is always used in catabolism AB = A + B

Catabolism

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