Studied by 2279 people

4.6(9)

Get a hint

Hint

Simplified Vocabulary of Unit 0: Scientific Practices (53 Terms)

1

Case Study

Thorough examination of a sample/individual over a time period using information-gathering techniques

New cards

2

Confounding Variable

Variable apart from independent that contributes to change in dependent variable; can skew results

New cards

3

Control Group

Group in experiment w/o independent var. or change; used for comparison

New cards

4

Correlation

Statistical relationship between two variables; may not imply causation

New cards

5

Correlation Coefficient

Number between -1 & 1 that indicated amount of correlation (strength & direction) between 2 variables

New cards

6

Critical Thinking

Analytical evaluation of an issue/idea to form a judgement by examining evidence and questioning assumptions

New cards

7

Debriefing

Providing participants w/ information about experiment/study after participation, esp. If deception was used

New cards

8

Dependent Variable

Measured var. in an experiment expected to change due to independent var.

New cards

9

Descriptive Statistics

Statistical analysis of data to summarize data sets by using central tendency, variability, etc.

New cards

10

Double-blind Study

Experiment in which the observers and participants don’t know who is in experimental or control group, reduces bias

New cards

11

Effect Size

Measure of the magnitude of the relationship between variables or effect of treatment (regardless of sample size)

New cards

12

Experiment

Research method that manipulates variable(s) to understand behaviors and mental processes

New cards

13

Experimental Group

Group within a study that receives treatment/independent variable and is observed to determine effect & effect size of independent variable

New cards

14

Experimenter’s Bias

When researcher expectations of a result influence an experiment and cause unintentional bias in results

New cards

15

Falsifiability

Idea that a hypothesis must have possible evidence to be refuted to be deemed scientific

New cards

16

Hindsight Bias

Belief that an individual predicted an outcome after learning results of said outcome

New cards

17

Histogram

Graph utilizing intervals/bars with different heights to show amount in each interval to show distribution between intervals

New cards

18

Hypothesis

Educated guess about variable correlation that is tested/experimented

New cards

19

Illusory correlation

The belief that a relationship exists between two variables when in reality they are separate

New cards

20

Independent Variable

Variable manipulated in an experiment to cause an effect on the dependent variable

New cards

21

Inferential Statistics

Statistics that infer/predict information about a population from a sample

New cards

22

Informed Consent

Ethical property of an experiment, ensuring participants understand the risks/aspects of an experiment before consent is given

New cards

23

Mean

Average of a data set

New cards

24

Median

Middle value within a dataset when arranged in ascending/descending order

New cards

25

Meta-analysis

Combining data from multiple experiments over same topic to understand general trends/outcomes

New cards

26

Mode

Most occurring number value in a dataset

New cards

27

Naturalistic Observations

Research method of observing participants in a natural setting/conditions to understand how trends/outcomes occur without variable manipulation

New cards

28

Normal Curve

Symmetrical Bell curve to understand data distribution; mean, median, & mode all in center of curve

New cards

29

Operational Definitions

The specific/exact specifications research/experiments must be conducted by and how variables must be measured

New cards

30

Peer Reviewers

Analysis of work by those in the same field as an individual to ensure maximum efficiency and validity.

New cards

31

Percentile Rank

Percentage of scores equal to or less than a specific score

New cards

32

Placebo

Inert substance given to control group to evaluate psychological effects of receiving a “treatment”

New cards

33

Placebo effect

Trend of participants changing behavior under the belief that they received an active treatment

New cards

34

Population

Group that research is directed to understand by using a sample from the population

New cards

35

Qualitative Research

Research to discover non-numerical data; observations to understand quality

New cards

36

Quantitative Research

Research to gain numerical/concrete measurements to understand relationships

New cards

37

Random Assignment

Fairly assigning participants to either the experimental or control group; every individual has equal chance of being in either group

New cards

38

Random Sample

Sample size in which participants had equal chance of being selected relative to the rest of the population

New cards

39

Range

Difference of highest/lowest values in a data set to recognize spread of data

New cards

40

Regression towards mean

The trend of outcomes within an experiment to drift towards the mean as the experiment is replicated

New cards

41

Replicate

Repeating a study/experiment to test if outcomes are reocurring

New cards

42

Sampling Bias

Bias affecting outcomes when the sample is not accurately representative of the population the research refers to

New cards

43

Scatterplot

Graphical representation of correlation with each data point representing an individuals score of both variables

New cards

44

Self-report Bias

Distortion in responses given by participants due to social desirability, memory recall, or misunderstanding of questions

New cards

45

Single-blind study

Experiment in which either researchers or participants are made unaware of group assignment

New cards

46

New cards

47

New cards

48

New cards

49

New cards

50

New cards

51

New cards

52

New cards

53

New cards