Met Reg Unit 2

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Which of the following cavities contains a component of the central nervous system?

  1. abdominal

  2. pelvic

  3. cranial

  4. thoracic

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Which of the following cavities contains a component of the central nervous system?

  1. abdominal

  2. pelvic

  3. cranial

  4. thoracic


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Which structure predominates in the white matter of the brain?

  1. myelinated axons

  2. neuronal cell bodies

  3. ganglia of the parasympathetic nerves

  4. bundles of dendrites from the enteric nervous system

myelinated axons

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Which part of a neuron transmits an electrical signal to a target cell?

  1. dendrites

  2. soma

  3. cell body

  4. axon


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Which term describes a bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system?

  1. nucleus

  2. ganglion

  3. tract

  4. nerve


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Which functional division of the nervous system would be responsible for the physiological changes seen during exercise (e.g., increased heart rate and sweating)?

  1. somatic

  2. autonomic

  3. enteric

  4. central


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What type of glial cell provides myelin for the axons in a tract?

  1. oligodendrocyte

  2. astrocyte

  3. Schwann cell

  4. satellite cell


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Which part of a neuron contains the nucleus?

  1. dendrite

  2. soma

  3. axon

  4. synaptic end bulb


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Which of the following substances is least able to cross the blood-brain barrier?

  1. water

  2. sodium ions

  3. glucose

  4. white blood cells

white blood cells

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What type of glial cell is the resident macrophage behind the blood-brain barrier?

  1. microglia

  2. astrocyte

  3. Schwann cell

  4. satellite cell


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What two types of macromolecules are the main components of myelin?

  1. carbohydrates and lipids

  2. proteins and nucleic acids

  3. lipids and proteins

  4. carbohydrates and nucleic acids

lipids and proteins

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If a thermoreceptor is sensitive to temperature sensations, what would a chemoreceptor be sensitive to?

  1. light

  2. sound

  3. molecules 4 .vibration


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Which of these locations is where the greatest level of integration is taking place in the example of testing the temperature of the shower?

  1. skeletal muscle

  2. spinal cord

  3. thalamus

  4. cerebral cortex

cerebral cortex

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How long does all the signaling through the sensory pathway, within the central nervous system, and through the motor command pathway take?

  1. 1 to 2 minutes

  2. 1 to 2 seconds

  3. fraction of a second

  4. varies with graded potential

fraction of a secon

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What is the target of an upper motor neuron?

  1. cerebral cortex

  2. lower motor neuron

  3. skeletal muscle

  4. thalamus

lower motor neuron

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What ion enters a neuron causing depolarization of the cell membrane?

  1. sodium

  2. chloride

  3. potassium

  4. phosphate


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Voltage-gated Na+ channels open upon reaching what state?

  1. resting potential

  2. threshold

  3. repolarization

  4. overshoot


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What does a ligand-gated channel require in order to open?

  1. increase in concentration of Na+ ions

  2. binding of a neurotransmitter

  3. increase in concentration of K+ ions

  4. depolarization of the membrane

binding of a neurotransmitter

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What does a mechanically gated channel respond to?

  1. physical stimulus

  2. chemical stimulus

  3. increase in resistance

  4. decrease in resistance

physical stimulus

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Which of the following voltages would most likely be measured during the relative refractory period? +30 mV 0 mV -45 mV -80 mv

-80 mV

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Which of the following is probably going to propagate an action potential fastest?

  1. a thin, unmyelinated axon

  2. a thin, myelinated axon

  3. a thick, unmyelinated axon

  4. a thick, myelinated axon

a thick, myelinated axon

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How much of a change in the membrane potential is necessary for the summation of postsynaptic potentials to result in an action potential being generated?

+30 mV +15 mV +10 mV -15 mV

+15 mV

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A channel opens on a postsynaptic membrane that causes a negative ion to enter the cell. What type of graded potential is this?

depolarizing repolarizing hyperpolarizing non-polarizing


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What neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular junction?

norepinephrine serotonin dopamine acetylcholine


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What type of receptor requires an effector protein to initiate a signal?

biogenic amine ionotropic receptor cholinergic system metabotropic receptor

metabotropic receptor

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Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with inhibition exclusively?

GABA acetylcholine glutamate Norepinephrine


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Aside from the nervous system, which other organ system develops out of the ectoderm?

digestive respiratory integumentary urinary


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Which primary vesicle of the embryonic nervous system does not differentiate into more vesicles at the secondary stage?

prosencephalon mesencephalon diencephalon rhombencephalon


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Which adult structure(s) arises from the diencephalon?

thalamus, hypothalamus, retina midbrain, pons, medulla pons and cerebellum cerebrum

thalamus, hypothalamus, retina

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Which non-nervous tissue develops from the neuroectoderm?

respiratory mucosa vertebral bone digestive lining craniofacial bone

craniofacial bone

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Which structure is associated with the embryologic development of the peripheral nervous system?

neural crest neuraxis rhombencephalon neural tube

neural crest

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Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is responsible for generating motor commands?

temporal parietal occipital frontal


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What region of the diencephalon coordinates homeostasis?

thalamus epithalamus hypothalamus subthalamus


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What level of the brain stem is the major input to the cerebellum?

midbrain pons medulla spinal cord


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What region of the spinal cord contains motor neurons that direct the movement of skeletal muscles?

anterior horn posterior horn lateral horn alar plate

anterior horn

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Brodmann’s areas map different regions of the ________ to particular functions.

cerebellum cerebral cortex basal forebrain corpus callosum

cerebral cortex

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What blood vessel enters the cranium to supply the brain with fresh, oxygenated blood?

common carotid artery jugular vein internal carotid artery aorta

internal carotid artery

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Which layer of the meninges surrounds and supports the sinuses that form the route through which blood drains from the CNS?

dura mater arachnoid mater subarachnoid pia mater

dura mater

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What type of glial cell is responsible for filtering blood to produce CSF at the choroid plexus?

ependymal cell astrocyte oligodendrocyte Schwann cell

ependymal cell

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Which portion of the ventricular system is found within the diencephalon?

lateral ventricles third ventricle cerebral aqueduct fourth ventricle

third ventricle

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What condition causes a stroke?

inflammation of meninges lumbar puncture infection of cerebral spinal fluid disruption of blood to the brain

disruption of blood to the brain

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What type of ganglion contains neurons that control homeostatic mechanisms of the body?

sensory ganglion dorsal root ganglion autonomic ganglion cranial nerve ganglion

autonomic ganglion

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Which ganglion is responsible for cutaneous sensations of the face?

otic ganglion vestibular ganglion geniculate ganglion trigeminal ganglion

trigeminal ganglion

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What is the name for a bundle of axons within a nerve?

fascicle tract nerve root epineurium


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Which cranial nerve does not control functions in the head and neck?

olfactory trochlear glossopharyngeal vagus


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Which of these structures is not under direct control of the peripheral nervous system?

trigeminal ganglion gastric plexus sympathetic chain ganglia cervical plexus

gastric plexus

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What type of receptor cell is responsible for transducing pain stimuli?

mechanoreceptor nociceptor osmoreceptor photoreceptor


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Which of these cranial nerves is part of the gustatory system?

olfactory trochlear trigeminal facial


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Which submodality of taste is sensitive to the pH of saliva?

Umami (made of glutamates) sour bitter sweet


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Axons from which neuron in the retina make up the optic nerve?

amacrine cells photoreceptors bipolar cells retinal ganglion cells

retinal ganglion cells

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What type of receptor cell is involved in the sensations of sound and balance?

photoreceptor chemoreceptor mechanoreceptor nociceptor


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Which of these sensory modalities does not pass through the ventral posterior thalamus?

gustatory proprioception audition nociception


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Which nucleus in the medulla is connected to the inferior colliculus?

solitary nucleus vestibular nucleus chief sensory nucleus cochlear nucleus

cochlear nucleus

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Visual stimuli in the upper-left visual field will be processed in what region of the primary visual cortex?

inferior right inferior left superior right superior left

inferior right

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Which location on the body has the largest region of somatosensory cortex representing it, according to the sensory homunculus?

lips thigh elbow neck


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Which of the following is a direct target of the vestibular ganglion?

superior colliculus cerebellum thalamus optic chiasm


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Which region of the frontal lobe is responsible for initiating movement by directly connecting to cranial and spinal motor neurons?

prefrontal cortex supplemental motor area premotor cortex primary motor cortex

primary motor cortex

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Which extrapyramidal tract incorporates equilibrium sensations with motor commands to aid in posture and movement?

tectospinal tract vestibulospinal tract reticulospinal tract corticospinal tract

vestibulospinal tract

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Which region of gray matter in the spinal cord contains motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles?

ventral horn dorsal horn lateral horn lateral column

ventral horn

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What type of reflex can protect the foot when a painful stimulus is sensed?

stretch reflex gag reflex withdrawal reflex corneal reflex

withdrawal reflex

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What is the name for the topographical representation of the sensory input to the somatosensory cortex?

homunculus homo sapiens postcentral gyrus primary cortex


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Which of these physiological changes would not be considered part of the sympathetic fight-or-flight response?

increased heart rate increased sweating dilated pupils increased stomach motility

increased stomach motility

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Which type of fiber could be considered the longest?

preganglionic parasympathetic preganglionic sympathetic postganglionic parasympathetic postganglionic sympathetic

preganglionic parasympathetic

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Which signaling molecule is most likely responsible for an increase in digestive activity?

epinephrine norepinephrine acetylcholine adrenaline


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Which of these cranial nerves contains preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?

optic, CN II facial, CN VII trigeminal, CN V hypoglossal, CN XII

facial, CN VII

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Which of the following is not a target of a sympathetic preganglionic fiber?

intermural ganglion collateral ganglion adrenal gland chain ganglion

intermural ganglion

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Which of the following represents a sensory input that is not part of both the somatic and autonomic systems?

vision taste baroreception proprioception


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What is the term for a reflex that does not include a CNS component?

long reflex visceral reflex somatic reflex short reflex

short reflex

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What neurotransmitter will result in constriction of the pupil?

norepinephrine acetylcholine epinephrine serotonin


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What gland produces a secretion that causes fight-or-flight responses in effectors?

adrenal medulla salivatory gland reproductive gland thymus

adrenal medulla

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Which of the following is an incorrect pairing?

norepinephrine dilates the pupil epinephrine increases blood pressure acetylcholine decreases digestion norepinephrine increases heart rate

acetylcholine decreases digestion

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Which of these locations in the forebrain is the master control center for homeostasis through the autonomic and endocrine systems?

hypothalamus thalamus amygdala cerebral cortex


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Which nerve projects to the hypothalamus to indicate the level of light stimuli in the retina?

glossopharyngeal oculomotor Optic Vagus - nutrition


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What region of the limbic lobe is responsible for generating stress responses via the hypothalamus?

hippocampus amygdala mammillary bodies prefrontal cortex


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What is another name for the preganglionic sympathetic fibers that project to the heart?

solitary tract vasomotor nerve vagus nerve cardiac accelerator nerve

cardiac accelerator nerve

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What central fiber tract connects forebrain and brainstem structures with the hypothalamus?

cardiac accelerator nerve medial forebrain bundle dorsal longitudinal fasciculus corticospinal tract

medial forebrain bundle

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A drug that affects both divisions of the autonomic system is going to bind to, or block, which type of neurotransmitter receptor?

nicotinic muscarinic α-adrenergic β-adrenergic


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A drug is called an agonist if it ________.

blocks a receptor interferes with neurotransmitter reuptake acts like the endogenous neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor blocks the voltage-gated calcium ion channel

acts like the endogenous neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor

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Which type of drug would be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

nicotinic agonist anticholinergic muscarinic agonist α-blocker

muscarinic agonist

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Which kind of drug would have anti-anxiety effects?

nicotinic agonist anticholinergic muscarinic agonist alpha-blocker


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Which type of drug could be used to treat asthma by opening airways wider?

sympatholytic drug sympathomimetic drug anticholinergic drug parasympathomimetic drug

sympathomimetic drug

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Endocrine glands ________.

secrete hormones that travel through a duct to the target organs release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft secrete chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream include sebaceous glands and sweat glands

secrete chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream

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Chemical signaling that affects neighboring cells is called ________.

autocrine paracrine endocrine neuron


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A newly developed pesticide has been observed to bind to an intracellular hormone receptor. If ingested, residue from this pesticide could disrupt levels of ________.

melatonin thyroid hormone growth hormone insulin

thyroid hormone

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A small molecule binds to a G protein coupled receptor, preventing its activation. What direct effect will this have on signaling that involves cAMP? The hormone will not be able to bind to the hormone receptor. Adenylyl cyclase will not be activated. Excessive quantities of cAMP will be produced. The phosphorylation cascade will be initiated.

adenylyl cyclase will not be activated

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A student is in a car accident, and although not hurt, immediately experiences pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and rapid breathing. What type of endocrine system stimulus did the student receive?

humoral hormonal neural positive feedback


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The hypothalamus is functionally and anatomically connected to the posterior pituitary lobe by a bridge of ________.

blood vessels nerve axons cartilage bone

nerve axons

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Which of the following is an anterior pituitary hormone?

ADH oxytocin TSH cortisol


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How many hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary? 0 1 2 6


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Which of the following hormones contributes to the regulation of the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance?

adrenocorticotropic hormone antidiuretic hormone luteinizing hormone all of the above

antidiuretic hormone

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Which of the following statements about the thyroid gland is true?

It is located anterior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx. The parathyroid glands are embedded within it. It manufactures three hormones. all of the above

all of the above

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The secretion of thyroid hormones is controlled by ________.

TSH from the hypothalamus TSH from the anterior pituitary thyroxine from the anterior pituitary thyroglobulin from the thyroid’s parafollicular cells

TSH from the anterior pituitary

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The development of a goiter indicates that ________.

the anterior pituitary is abnormally enlarged there is hypertrophy of the thyroid’s follicle cells there is an excessive accumulation of colloid in the thyroid follicles the anterior pituitary is secreting excessive growth hormone

there is an excessive accumulation of colloid in the thyroid follicles

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Iodide ions cross from the bloodstream into follicle cells via ________.

simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport osmosis

active transport

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When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates ________.

urinary excretion of calcium by the kidneys a reduction in calcium absorption from the intestines the activity of osteoblasts the activity of osteoclasts

activity of osteoclasts

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Which of the following can result from hyperparathyroidism?

increased bone deposition fractures convulsions all of the above


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The adrenal glands are attached superiorly to which organ?

thyroid liver kidneys hypothalamus


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What secretory cell type is found in the adrenal medulla?

chromaffin cells neuroglial cells follicle cells oxyphil cells

chromaffin cells

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Cushing’s disease is a disorder caused by ________.

abnormally low levels of cortisol abnormally high levels of cortisol abnormally low levels of aldosterone abnormally high levels of aldosterone

abnormally high levels of cortisol

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Which of the following responses s not part of the fight-or-flight response?

pupil dilation increased oxygen supply to the lungs suppressed digestion reduced mental activity

reduced mental activity

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What cells secrete melatonin?

melanocytes pinealocytes suprachiasmatic nucleus cells retinal cells


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