Tour of the Cell Test

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Cell Theory

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Biology

68 Terms

1

Cell Theory

-All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. -The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms. -Cells arise from pre-existing cells.

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cytology

the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells

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biochemistry

study of the metabolism (chemical processes) of organisms and cells

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eukaryotic cell size range

10 – 100 um

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prokaryotic cell size range

most are 1-5 um, some .1-1 um

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6

What are the organelles present in all cells? Functions?

-plasma membrane: Regulates what goes in and out of the cell -cytoplasm: Internal space of the cell -cytosol: Jelly like material in the cytoplasm -ribosomes and genetic material: protein sythesis

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Why is there a limit on how small a cell can be?

Need to be large enough to contain DNA and ribosomes to carry out metabolism for life functions

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Why is there a limit on how large a cell can be?

-There are limits to how much material can cross a given area of membrane in a period of time. (Diffusion) -Want to maximize the size (area) of the membrane compared to the internal space it has to have efficient exchange with environment -Smaller cells have more efficient exchange because of the large SA to vol ratio. -When cells increase in size the internal volume increases faster than SA of the membrane -bigger the cell gets (volume) more nutrients it needs, so needs a good ratio -If the cell is too large, then the distance materials have to travel within the cell becomes too inefficient (Distance) -Inadequate to sustain life.

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Organelles found in prokaryotic cells and their functions

Cell membrane: Dictates what goes in and out of cell Cell wall : Prevents lysis Capsule: slimy coat that protects them against our immune system and antibiotics; Also helps them adhere to surfaces Cytosol: Jellylike substance in which things are suspended in Cytoplasm: Space within cell Ribosomes: Complexes that synthesize proteins DNA: Stores genetic material that codes for mRNA Flagella: helps propel them through watery environments Pili/Fimbriae: extensions that also help bacteria stick to surfaces Nucleoid Region: Region where DNA is concentrated

<p>Cell membrane: Dictates what goes in and out of cell Cell wall : Prevents lysis Capsule: slimy coat that protects them against our immune system and antibiotics; Also helps them adhere to surfaces Cytosol: Jellylike substance in which things are suspended in Cytoplasm: Space within cell Ribosomes: Complexes that synthesize proteins DNA: Stores genetic material that codes for mRNA Flagella: helps propel them through watery environments Pili/Fimbriae: extensions that also help bacteria stick to surfaces Nucleoid Region: Region where DNA is concentrated</p>
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Organelles found in eukaryotic cells and their functions

Nucleus: houses genetic information Plasma membrane: selectively permeable barrier surrounding the cell Ribosomes: complexes that make proteins Golgi Apparatus: active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products, like proteins Mitochondria: where CR occurs and most ATP is produced Peroxisomes: break down and detoxify substances, produces Hydrogen Peroxide and then converts it to water Cytoskeleton: structural support in cell Endoplasmic Reticulum: calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism

<p>Nucleus: houses genetic information Plasma membrane: selectively permeable barrier surrounding the cell Ribosomes: complexes that make proteins Golgi Apparatus: active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products, like proteins Mitochondria: where CR occurs and most ATP is produced Peroxisomes: break down and detoxify substances, produces Hydrogen Peroxide and then converts it to water Cytoskeleton: structural support in cell Endoplasmic Reticulum: calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism</p>
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Organelles specific to animal cells

Lysosome, centrioles, flagella

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organelles specific to plant cells

chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall, plasmodesmata

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importance of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells

-Allow cell to maintain different local environments for different types incompatible reactions. -Allows those reactions to happen simultaneously. -Enzymes built into membranes of organelles that catalyze reactions within organelle.

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Nuclear envelope

double layered; Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm; outer membrane is on outside, inner membrane in inside

<p>double layered; Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm; outer membrane is on outside, inner membrane in inside</p>
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Nuclear Pores

Regulates what goes in/out of nucleus (Proteins, RNA, macromolecules) Connect to either bilayer

<p>Regulates what goes in/out of nucleus (Proteins, RNA, macromolecules) Connect to either bilayer</p>
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Nuclear Lamina

Netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus through mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope Lines nueclear side of envelope (Except pores)

<p>Netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus through mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope Lines nueclear side of envelope (Except pores)</p>
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Chromatin

Complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes

<p>Complex of DNA and proteins making up chromosomes</p>
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Nucleolus

produces rRNA

<p>produces rRNA</p>
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19

What two macromolecules make up ribosomes?

rRNA and proteins

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Ribomes (Function and structure)

-sythesize proteins through translation -composed of two subunits assembled in cytoplasm (large and small subunits)

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Free ribosomes

-Found within the cytosol -Generally produce proteins that function within the cytosol

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Bound ribosomes

-Attached to the Rough ER & nuclear envelope -Proteins made by bound ribosomes go into cisternal space OR they can be embedded in the ER membrane to then be: secreted from the cell, enzymes in lysosomes or in other vesicles, Embedded in membrane as membrane proteins

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organelles of endomembrane system and their connection

-Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles/vacuoles, and plasma membrane -Membranes are all related either through direct physical contact or transfer of vesicles

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (functions)

-Does not have ribosomes attached to it -Synthesis of lipids, including phospholipids, steroids (sex hormones), and oils -Detoxification of drugs and poisons by making them water soluble; Add hydroxyl group to dissolve in water, where it then can be urinated out of the body; The Smooth ER increases in size to keep up with demand (this is called tolerance) -Attaches receptors to membrane proteins -Carbohydrate metabolism; breaks down sugars like glycogen through hydrolysis -Storage of calcium ions; Sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle is modified smooth ER

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Rough Endoplasmic Recticulum

-Has ribosomes attached to it -Affect secondary and tertiary structure of polypeptide -Bends polysaccharide into a glycoprotein (protein tagged with a oligosaccharide) for cell-cell recognition -Polypeptides leave rough ER through transport vesicles and go to Golgi (They will then be secreted, embedded in the plasma membrane, or to be part of the endomembrane system) -Also considered a membrane factory for the cell (Also produces phospholipids)

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Golgi Apparatus (Function)

-Proteins are Modified, tagged, sorted, stored and sent to destination in cell or secreted from cell. -Sugar (oligosaccharide) on glycoproteins are altered -Membrane phospholipids are altered in Golgi too -Phosphate groups added to proteins tag them for destination.

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What cell function is associated with extensive amounts of golgi?

secretion

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cis face of Golgi

Site where a transport vesicle will fuse with golgi first

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trans face of Golgi

Gives rise to vesicles that pinch off and travel to other sites

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lumen

internal compartment or space

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lysosome (function)

-Vesicle that pinches off from Golgi, full of hydrolytic enzymes -Intracellular digestion of food particles, worn-out organelles (autophagy), and non-useful tissues. (finger webbing)

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What is the pH inside of the lysosome? How is this a protective mechanism for the cell?

-Enzymes work best at pH 5 so proton pumps in lysosome membrane bring in H+ to decrease pH -if enzymes are released into the cell, lysosomes denature because of neutral pH

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apoptosis

if all lysosomes rupture as a programmed cell death

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autolysis

Too much vitamin A ruptures membrane

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vesicles

Small membrane bound sac

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vacuoles

large membrane bound sac

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phagocytosis

Engulfing of smaller organisms or food particles with psuedopods

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38

Describe how lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion.

-Food vacuole formed this way fuse with lysosome whose enzymes digest the food -Digestion products include simple sugars, AA, other monomers pass through cytosol and become nutrients for cell -Ex. macrophages, white blood cell engulfs invaders

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autophagy

-Hydrolytic enzymes recycle the cells won organic material damage organelle or small amount of cytosol surround by double membrane -Lysosome will fuse with outer membrane -Dismantle enclosed material with enzymes -Resulting small organic compounds are released to the cytosol for reuse

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Tay Sachs disease

-Lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive -Brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells

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Food vacuole

-Formed by phagocytosis -deliver nutrients to organelles

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contractile vacuole

-Pump excess water out of the cell, maintains a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell -Protects cell from lysing in a hypotonic solution

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central vacuole

-Stores water, proteins, ions, waste products, pigments, and poisons. -Helps plant cells grow by absorbing water & elongating the plant cell. -Doesn't disrupt SA to vol ratio because pushes all organelles to side, so increasing exchange and efficacy

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44

Mitochondria

-Sites of cellular respiration -Uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels

  • has an inner and outer membrane with many proteins embedded; creates the Intermembrane space and the Matrix containing DNA and ribosomes -can reproduce on their own

<p>-Sites of cellular respiration -Uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels</p><ul><li><p>has an inner and outer membrane with many proteins embedded; creates the Intermembrane space and the Matrix containing DNA and ribosomes -can reproduce on their own</p></li></ul>
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Christae

bends and folds in mitochondria that increase SA

<p>bends and folds in mitochondria that increase SA</p>
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Matrix

spaces within christae of mitochondria

<p>spaces within christae of mitochondria</p>
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47

Chloroplasts

-site of photosynthesis -Convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water -glucose production -can reproduce on their own

<p>-site of photosynthesis -Convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water -glucose production -can reproduce on their own</p>
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48

Thylakoids

trap light and contain the thylakoid space

<p>trap light and contain the thylakoid space</p>
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granum

stacks of thylakoids

<p>stacks of thylakoids</p>
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50

stroma

aqueous fluid within chloroplasts

<p>aqueous fluid within chloroplasts</p>
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51

What is the endosymbiont theory stating?

-Prokaryotic cell pinches inward to create some membrane-bound organelles -Larger prokaryotic cell engulfs a smaller prokaryotic cell through Phagocytosis -Two cells develops a symbiotic relationship -Parent gives glucose, smaller gives ATP -The smaller cell eventually develops into the mitochondria -Later a photosynthetic prokaryotic cell is engulfed in the same process to create chloroplasts

<p>-Prokaryotic cell pinches inward to create some membrane-bound organelles -Larger prokaryotic cell engulfs a smaller prokaryotic cell through Phagocytosis -Two cells develops a symbiotic relationship -Parent gives glucose, smaller gives ATP -The smaller cell eventually develops into the mitochondria -Later a photosynthetic prokaryotic cell is engulfed in the same process to create chloroplasts</p>
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52

What is the evidence supporting the theory?

-Both mitochondria have 2 membranes surrounding them, suggesting that they were engulfed into a vesicle -Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes, circular DNA attached to inner membranes, and are the same size as prokaryotes; Ribosomes are more similar to prokaryotes than eukaryotes.; Membrane proteins in inner membranes homologous to membrane proteins in modern bacteria -Mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce in the cell; Reproduce in similar manner to prokaryotes (binary fission)

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Lysosome Formation

-In the nucleus, DNA is copied into mRNA through transcription -mRNA then leaves the nucleus through nuclear pore and travel along cytoskeleton (microtubules) with help from a motor protein -then goes to a bound ribosome on the Rough ER, where is it translated to form a specific chain of amino acids called a polypeptide chain -the polypeptide is then inserted into the lumen of the Rough ER where its secondary and tertiary structures are altered, and a oligosaccaride is added to the polypeptide of cell-cell recognition (Becomes glycoprotein) -it then pinches off into a transport vesicle and travel along the microtubules with help from a motor protein -it fuses to the cis face of the golgi, dumping its contents, where it is then modified, sorted, and tagged -it then leaves by pinching off of the trans face of golgi into vesicle -looks for organelles and food vacuoles to absorb/breakdown through phagocyosis

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Journey of a protein from synthesis to secretion

-In the nucleus, DNA is copied into mRNA through transcription -mRNA then leaves the nucleus through nuclear pore and travel along cytoskeleton (microtubules) with help from a motor protein -then goes to a bound ribosome on the Rough ER, where is it translated to form a specific chain of amino acids called a polypeptide chain -the polypeptide is then inserted into the lumen of the Rough ER where its secondary and tertiary structures are altered, and a oligosaccaride is added to the polypeptide of cell-cell recognition (Becomes glycoprotein) -it then pinches off into a transport vesicle and travel along the microtubules with help from a motor protein -it fuses to the cis face of the golgi, dumping its contents, where it is then modified, sorted, and tagged -it then leaves by pinching off of the trans face of golgi into vesicle -it then travels along microtubules with help from motor protein -the vesicle then fuses with the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane, where protein is released from cell through exocytosis/secretion

<p>-In the nucleus, DNA is copied into mRNA through transcription -mRNA then leaves the nucleus through nuclear pore and travel along cytoskeleton (microtubules) with help from a motor protein -then goes to a bound ribosome on the Rough ER, where is it translated to form a specific chain of amino acids called a polypeptide chain -the polypeptide is then inserted into the lumen of the Rough ER where its secondary and tertiary structures are altered, and a oligosaccaride is added to the polypeptide of cell-cell recognition (Becomes glycoprotein) -it then pinches off into a transport vesicle and travel along the microtubules with help from a motor protein -it fuses to the cis face of the golgi, dumping its contents, where it is then modified, sorted, and tagged -it then leaves by pinching off of the trans face of golgi into vesicle -it then travels along microtubules with help from motor protein -the vesicle then fuses with the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane, where protein is released from cell through exocytosis/secretion</p>
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55

Peroxisomes

-Membranous sac that contains enzymes that transfer a H atom from a molecule to O2, forming H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) through oxidation -detoxify substances. (alcohol & formaldehyde) -breaks FAs down to smaller molecules for CR -abundant in cells in liver and kidney

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What is the toxin produced by reactions happening in the peroxisome?

-Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -Catalase breaks hydrogen peroxide down into Water (H2O) and Oxygen (O2) to make it not toxic

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cytoskeleton

-Mechanical support, shape, movement, anchorage of organelles and regulation of biochemistry. -Dynamic structure, constantly being broken down & reassembled where needed. -Three types of rods: Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments

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Microtubules

-Building blocks: tubulins -Shape: Hollow Rods -Function: Maintenance of cell shape, Cell movement (cilia and flagella), Cell division (spindle apparatus), Tracks for motor proteins -smallest

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basal bodies

microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages

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microfilaments

-Building blocks: Actin -Shape: Twisted double chain of actin, linear -Functions: Tension bearing to support cell shape, Creates changes in cell shape, Muscle contraction, Cytoplasmic streaming (creates a constant flow to allow for movement of vacuoles), Ameboid movement, Mitosis (cleavage furrow) -biggest

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61

intermediate filaments

-building blocks: keratin; fibrous proteins -shape: fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables -functions: Supports cell shape through bearing of tension, Creates cages around organelles including nucleus to anchor them in place, Makes up nuclear lamina, Anchor cells together through desmosomes -medium

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Plasmodesmata

channels through the walls allowing the cytosol of adjacent cells to flow between them (allows transmission of Solutes, water, proteins, RNA)

<p>channels through the walls allowing the cytosol of adjacent cells to flow between them (allows transmission of Solutes, water, proteins, RNA)</p>
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63

Cell Wall (funtion and structure)

-provide cell shape & keep from overfilling with water -Supports plant (wood) -Middle lamella is “glue” holding adjacent plant cells together -Primary wall is first wall laid down by young plant. -Secondary cell walls laid between primary & cell membrane.

<p>-provide cell shape &amp; keep from overfilling with water -Supports plant (wood) -Middle lamella is “glue” holding adjacent plant cells together -Primary wall is first wall laid down by young plant. -Secondary cell walls laid between primary &amp; cell membrane.</p>
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centrosome

Area where microtubules are made and organized (spindle apparatus); contain centrioles in animals cells

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65

extracellular matrix (Be able to label)

-On outer surface of animal cells -Secreted by cell -Attached to cell by fibronectin proteins -Give membrane stability -Transmits signals into cell

<p>-On outer surface of animal cells -Secreted by cell -Attached to cell by fibronectin proteins -Give membrane stability -Transmits signals into cell</p>
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66

tight junction

impermeable barrier, cell membranes of neighboring cells are fused. (cells lining alimentary and cells with microvilli in digestive system)

<p>impermeable barrier, cell membranes of neighboring cells are fused. (cells lining alimentary and cells with microvilli in digestive system)</p>
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67

desmosomes

anchor cells together (skin cells & uterine cells)

<p>anchor cells together (skin cells &amp; uterine cells)</p>
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gap junctions

pores connecting adjacent cells (heart cells)

<p>pores connecting adjacent cells (heart cells)</p>
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