Unit 2: Population 22-23

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Climate

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34 Terms
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Climate

The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time

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Landforms

the natural features of the land's surface

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Water Bodies

inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)

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Distribution

The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.

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Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of arable land

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Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

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Carrying Capacity

the largest population that an environment can support at any given time

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Population Pyramid

A bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex

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Demographic

relating to the structure of populations

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Fertility

the incidence of childbearing in a country's population

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Mortality

death

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Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society.

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Crude Death Rate (CDR)

the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year

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Dependency Ratio

The number of people under age 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force

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Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)

the difference between number of births and deaths

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Population Doubling Time

The number of years it takes a population to double; calculated by dividing the number 72 by the rate of natural increase

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Demographic Transition Model

a model of how the size of a population changes as a country develops its economy

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DTM Stage One

hunting and gathering society, in which a society has a low total population with fluctuations in both the birth and death rates. When the birth rates are high the death rates are low & vice versa. Example: No countries in this stage.

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DTM Stage Two

agricultural society, birth rates remain high but death rates decline because of more stable food sources and the diffusion of modern medicine (birth rates & death rates remain higher than the world average) & technology. Example: Nigeria

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DTM Stage Three

industrial society, birth rates start to decline while death rates continue to decline, factories and economies become important (birth/death rates are around the world averages) Example: Brazil

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DTM Stage Four

tertiary (service-based) societies, birth rates and death rates are almost equal, no longer an industrial society, rather it has shifted towards post-industrial. Example: USA

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DTM Stage Five

low death rates, very low birth rates, decrease in natural increase rate. Example: Japan

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Epidemiological Transition Model

The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.

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ETM Stage 1

Pestilence, famine, and human conflict cause high CDR.

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ETM Stage 2

Receding pandemics with improved sanitation and nutrition, rapidly declining CDR

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ETM Stage 3

Degenerative and human created diseases. Decrease in human deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders.

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ETM Stage 4

medicine delays degenerative diseases; life expectancy reaches a peak

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ETM Stage 5

a proposed stage of reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases and some become resistant to antibiotics; CDR increases

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Malthusian Theory

The theory that population grows faster than food supply

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Esther Boserup

Geographer who believed that our farming technology will always improve in order to be able to feed the growing population of the planet.

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Neomalthusians

a belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for few resources. Pessimists who warn of the global ecopolitical dangers of uncontrolled population growth.

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Pronatalist

Policies that encourage people to have children.

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Antinatalist

Policies that discourage people from having children.

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