Chapter 4: Skeletal

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Osseous tissue is made of what type of tissue?

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Skeletal

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1

Osseous tissue is made of what type of tissue?

Connective

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Functions of bones

Support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, and blood formation.

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outer covering consisting of fibrous CT and a layer of bone-forming cells, attaches to cartilage.

Periosteum

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Dense layer of osseous tissue that makes up the outer portion of a bone.

Compact bone

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porous bone often found at ends of long bones and within flat bones. Always surrounded by compact bone

spongy bone

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inner compartment that contains bone marrow

Marrow cavity

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soft tissue composed of adipose tissue (YELLOW MARROW) and/or  RED MARROW (HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE that is responsible for blood cell formation). Red marrow decreases with age

Bone marrow

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Yellow marrow tissue

adipose

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Red marrow tissue

Hematopoietic

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thin layer of reticular CT that lines the marrow cavity. Also contains OSTEOGENIC cells

endosteum

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main shaft of a bone where many muscles attach

Diaphysis

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end of a bone that articulates with other bones to form  a joint

Epiphysis

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layer of hyaline cartilage that separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis. In children and adolescents, this is the zone of dividing cells that allows bones to grow longer (a.k.a, “growth plate”).

Epiphyseal plate or line

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Perforating holes that allow blood vessels to enter the bone and transport nutrients and waste

Nutrient Foramina

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Since bone is connective tissue, it contains

cells, fiber, ground substance

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undifferentiated cells that will mature and become osteoblasts. Found in endosteum and periosteum

Osteogenic cells

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undifferentiated cells that will mature and become osteoblasts. Found in endosteum and periosteum

Osteoblasts

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These are “retired” osteoblasts that live in LACUNAE

  • Communicate via GAP JUNCTIONS

  • Can “sense” mechanical stress

  • Small ability to deposit or resorb bone

Osteocytes

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large multi-nucleated cells whose job is to dissolve bone. Similar origin as macrophages (blood derived)

Osteoclasts

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non-cellular, ground substance of osseous tissue

bone matrix

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Bone cell types

Osteogenetic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

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Bone matrix is made of

Organic protein matter and inorganic matter

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Organic protein matter is mainly made of

collagen

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organic protein matter makes up ___ of the bone matrix

1/3

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inorganic matter makes up ___ of the bone matrix

2/3

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Inorganic matter of the bone matrix is made of

Hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate

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2 or more structural componants are called

a composite

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inorganic matter gives bones

strength and rigidity

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organic matter gives bones

flexibility

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brittle bones

osteogenesis

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too soft

osteomalcia or rickets

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central canal surrounded by circular layers of bone matrix

Osteon

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 circular layers of bone matrix surrounding a central canal

lamellae

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runs the length of a bone and contain blood vessels and nerves

Haversian canal

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 cavities which contain osteocytes

Lacunae

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 tiny ducts between lacunae and allow osteocytes to communicate via gap junctions

Canaliculi

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allows communication between central canals and/or nutrient foramina

Volkman’s Canal

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a meshwork of thin rods and plates of osseous tissue (TRABECULAE)

spongy bone

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Types of bone marrow

Red and yellow

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Red marrow is found in what parts of the body?

pelvis, skull, ribs, heads of femur and humerus

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Red bone marrow does what with age?

disappears

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Yellow bone marrow is found in

Adipose tissue

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Red marrow turns into

yellow marrow

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Red bone marrow function

blood formation

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Red marrow is what type of tissue?

Hematopoietic

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Where the lacunae of the cartilage grow larger and become calcified (hardened)

Primary ossification center

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Blood vessels enter the primary ossification center, then

 osteoblasts convert hyaline cartilage to osseous tissue, chondrocytes proliferate

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convert hyaline cartilage to osseous tissue

osteoblasts

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secondary ossification centers

blood vessels invade the epiphyses of the bone creating

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secondary ossification centers eventually hollow out into

secondary marrow cavities

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secondary marrow cavities fill with

spongy bone

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Epiphyseal Plate is between

primary and secondary marrow cavities

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this is on the surface of the ends of you bones

articular cartilage

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How does bone grow with endochondrial ossification?

Length

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Bone elongation steps:

  1. Chondrocytes of the hyaline cartilage in the epiphyseal plate grow larger and multiply

  2. As cartilage layer expands, the cartilage at the upper and lower edges of the epiphyseal plate becomes ossified

  3. Process of expansion/ossification at the metaphysis repeats over and over, thereby extending the length of the bon

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Growing pains are

the epiphyseal plate expanding faster than the periosteum muscle covering

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Hyaline Cartilage is precursor to

osseous bone tissue

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The widening and thickening of bone is called

appositional growth

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appositional growth

A thin layer of osteoblasts (the bone forming cells) resides on the inner surface of the periosteum. As the osteoblasts lay down more and more osseous tissue, making the bone thicker and wider, osteoclasts come behind from inside the marrow cavity and dissolve some of that bone allowing the marrow cavity to grow as well

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Appositional growth results in

production of circumferential lamellae

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How many bones to infants have?

270

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soft spaces between the skull in infants are called

fontanelles

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Fontanelles grow together, now called

cranial sutures

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Fontanelles allow

brain to grow fast than body

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Mandible is two seperate bones fused along midline, ossified cartilage is called the

mandibular symphysis

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Pelvis consists of

2 ox coxae

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1 os coxae

fused pubis, ilium, ischium

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Everyday bone remodeling repairs

microfractures

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Forces that develop bone features

pulling and compression

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Pulling forces stimulate

osteoblast activity

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Contractile forces stimulate

osteoclast activity

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Bone remodeling is important for

mineral release and absorption into bloodstream

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Bone remodeling maintains what chemical levels?

calcium and phosphate

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Wolff’s Law

bone architecture is determined by mechanical stresses placed on it

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Bones increase in density when

mechanical stress is placed on them

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Stress lines

trabeculae of spongy bone will increase in density and orient themselves to accommodate increased mechanical stress

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When does bone remodeling happen?

Throughout life

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Osteoblasts __ bone matrix

synthesizes

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Osteoclasts __ bone matrix

dissolve

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Creating more bone is called

bone deposition

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Removing bone tissue is called

bone resorption

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Osteoclast dissolve, increasing what levels

Ca2+

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What secretions help break down osseous tissue?

HCl and collagenase

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Bone repairs in

8-12 weeks

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Blood clot =

Hematoma

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Fracture Repair Steps

Hematoma formation and granulation, soft callus formation, hard callus formation, remodeling.

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Bone and blood vessels are severed, blood clots around site.

Fibroblasts, osteogenic cells, and blood vessels invade the area creating a soft mass of tissue called GRANULATION TISSUE

Hematoma formation and granulation

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Fibroblasts deposit collagen that creates a fibrous patch around the fracture

Soft Callus formation

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Osteoblasts lay down a collar of new bone surrounding the fracture called a HARD CALLUS.

The hard callus is the body’s version of a cast that keeps the pieces of bone properly aligned during healing.

At this point the fracture is still fragile and can be re-broken quite easily.

Hard Callus formation

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Remodeling

 process by which the broken pieces of bone are remodeled and gaps between bone pieces are filled.

Osteoclasts remove small fragments of broken bone and smooth jagged edges.

Osteoblasts enter and lay down a layer of spongy bone to close any gaps (prevents bones from shortening after a fracture)

Spongy bone transitions to compact bone and fracture site is often nearly undetectable

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Fibroblasts, osteogenic cells, and blood vessels invade the area creating a soft mass of

Granulation tissue

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 fibrous patch around the fracture is a

soft callus

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osteoblasts lay down collar of new bone called

hard callus

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Osteoporosis

Disease in which bones become less dense, very brittle and susceptible to fracture

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Osteoporosis literally means

porous bones

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What is decreased in Osteoporosis?

Bone mineral density

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This is affected most when you have osteoporosis

spongy bone

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Risk factors for osteoporosis

Females, Asian or Caucasian, low estrogen levels, poor diet, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, taking glucocorticoids.

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Treatments for osteoporosis

Activity, resistance training, diet, supplements, medications to inhibit osteoclast activity,

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abnormal bone formation due to lack of Vitamin D, calcitriol, or calcium/phosphate. Weight bearing bones such as the femur often bow in/out due to softness of bone

Rickets

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