Psychology Chapter 6 Vocabulary

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conditioning

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conditioning

a type of learning that involves stimulus- response connections

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classical conditioning

is a simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus

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unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned

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unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

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conditioned response

a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless

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conditioned stimulus

repeated association w/ anything

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taste aversion

learned avoidance of a particular food

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extinction

when the conditioned stimulus is disconnected from unconditional stimulus

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spontaneous recovery

organism sometimes display responses that were extinguished earlier

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generalization

the act of responding in the same way to stimuli

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discrimination

is the act of responding differently to stimuli

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flooding

a person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished

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systematic desensitization

people are taught relaxation techniques

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counterconditioning

a pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear

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operant conditioning

people and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others

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primary reinforcers

ex. food, water, adequate warmth

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secondary reinforcers

must be learned initially acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers

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positive reinforcers

increase the frequency of the behavior they follow

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negative reinforcers

increase the frequency of the behaviors that follows when they are removed.

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schedule of reinforcement

when and how often the reinforcement occurs

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continuous reinforcement

the reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs

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partial reinforcement

a behavior is not reinforced every time it occurs

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shaping

a way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity

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chaining

each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until final action is achieved.

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reinforcement

the process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again.

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