AP Art History Ultimate Guide

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Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine

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Camelid sacrum in the shape of a canine

an important Mesoamerican artifact that is shaped like a dog but represents the sacrum bone of a camelid. It was used in religious rituals and is believed to have had symbolic significance in the region's mythology.

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Anthropomorphic stele

A type of ancient stone monument that features a human-like figure or figures. They were often used in funerary contexts and are found in various cultures around the world.

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Jade cong

Neolithic jade artifact. Hollow cylinder with circular perforations. Found in ancient Chinese tombs. Symbolic significance in Chinese culture. Believed to represent the universe and the cycle of life

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4

The Ambum Stone

Artifact discovered in Papua New Guinea, believed to be from 1500 BCE. Made of greywacke stone and depicts a human-like figure with a bird's head. Significance is unknown.

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5

Tlatilco female figurine

Small clay figurine from the Tlatilco culture in Central Mexico, dating back to 1200-900 BCE. Depicts a female with exaggerated hips and breasts, often holding a child. Considered an important artifact for understanding gender roles and social organization in ancient Mesoamerica.

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Terra cotta fragment

A small piece of fired clay that has broken off from a larger object. Often used in archaeological excavations to reconstruct ancient pottery and sculptures.

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Apollo 11 stones

A Paleolithic cave in Lascaux, France, known for its prehistoric wall paintings of bulls, horses, and other animals.

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Great Hall of the Bulls

This prehistoric artwork is located in the Lascaux Caves of France. It features a collection of animal paintings, including bulls, horses, and deer.

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9

Running horned woman

A prehistoric rock painting found in Mexico depicting a woman with horns, running. It is believed to date back to around 6000 BCE and is one of the earliest known examples of art in the Americas. The significance of the horns is unknown, but it is speculated that they may represent a spiritual or supernatural aspect of the woman.

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10

Beaker with ibex motifs

It is a beaker that has ibex motifs on it. The ibex is a type of wild goat that was often depicted in ancient art. This beaker was likely used for drinking or storing liquids. It was made by skilled artisans in ancient times and is now a valuable artifact for archaeologists to study.

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11

Stonehenge

Megalithic monument in England, built around 2500 BCE. Consists of large standing stones arranged in circular and horseshoe shapes. Purpose and methods of construction remain a mystery.

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White Temple and its ziggurat

Buttresses spaced across the surface; tapers downward so that rainwater washes off. Resembles a mountain. Bent-axis plan

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13

Statues of votive figures

different heights; hands are folded - gesture of prayer; huge eyes; arms and feet cut away; placed in a temple to pray before a sculpture of a god.

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Standard of Ur

wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red ­limestone; broad frontal shoulders; bodies in profile; twisted perspective. Reflects extensive trading network. Has two sides: War Side and Peace Side

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15

Code of Hammurabi

Written in cuneiform | Akkadian language. One of the earliest law codes; 300 entries

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16

Lamassu

Human-headed winged animal guardian figures. Meant to hold up the walls and arch of a gate. Meant to ward off enemies both visible and invisible. Carved from a single piece of stone.

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17

Apadana of Darius and Xerxes

Built for lavish receptions and festivals. Proudly proclaim this complex as the seat of a great empire. Built by Darius I and Xerxes I. Destroyed by Alexander the Great

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18

Rosetta Stone

Modern Egyptology began with the 1799 discovery of the _____, from which hieroglyphics could, for the first time, be translated into modern languages.

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19

Sarcophagi

These are stone coffins.

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20

Palette of King Narmer

Represents the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under one ruler. Schematic lines delineate in the muscle structure. Hieroglyphics identify him in the cartouche; used to prepare eye makeup | commemorative

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Seated Scribe

Not a pharaoh; has high cheekbones, hollow cheeks, and a distinctive jawline. Created for a tomb at Saqqara as a provision for the ka.

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22

Menkaura, Khafre and Khufu

Name of the Three Great Pyramids

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Great Pyramids

Giant monuments to dead pharaohs. Preservation of the body and tomb contents for eternity. Served as the king’s palace in the afterlife. Shape must have been influenced by a benben.

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Great Sphinx

Carved in situ from a huge rock. Body of a lion, head of a pharaoh/god; protecting the pyramids behind it

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King Menkaura and queen

two figures attached to a block of stone; seem to stride forward; simultaneously are anchored to the stone behind; receptacle for the ka of the pharaoh and his queen.

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Temple of Amun-Re

Axial Plan. Pylon Temple | Hypostyle halls. Massive lintels, columns. Temple for the worship of a god. Temple represents the beginnings of the world

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27

Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut

A sandstone partly carved into a rock cliff. Three colonnaded terraces and two ramps. Long horizontals and verticals of the terraces and colonnades repeat the patterns of the cliffs behind; patterns of dark and light in the colonnade are reflected in the cliffs.

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28

Kneeling statue of Hatshepsut

Made of red granite. Male pharaonic attributes. Wears the white crown of Upper Egypt. Depicted in male costume of a pharaoh

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29

Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters

Amarna Style; a sunken relief; state religion was changed by Akhenaton to the worship of Aton> Having a private relationship with their new god

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30

Innermost coffin of King Tutankhamun’s tomb

A gold with an inlay of enamel and semi-precious stones. Smooth, idealized features on the mask. Holds a crook and a flail, symbols of osiris; buried with 143 objects

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31

Last judgment of Hunefer

Narrative on a uniform register. Illustration from the Book of the Dead. Top register - white at left before a row of judges; main register - Anubis leads the deceased into a hall

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32

Anavysos Kouros

Hair is knotted and falls in neatly braided rows down the back. “Archaic smile” meant to enliven the sculpture. Grave marker, replacing huge vases of the Geometric period. Sponsored by an aristocratic family.

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33

Peplos Kore

Hand emerges into the viewer’s space. Breasts revealed beneath drapery; Indented waist. Broken hand was fitted into the socket; she is the goddess, either Athena or Artemis

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34

Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)

Represents Polykleitos’s ideal masculine figure. Marble Roman copy of a bronze Greek original. Found in Pompeii in a place for athletic training

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35

Helios, Horses, and Dionysus (Heracles?)

Figures seated in the left-hand corner of the east pediment of the Parthenon; contains figures who are present at the birth of Athena, which is the main topic at the center of pediment—now lost. Part of the Parthenon sculptures, also called the Elgin Marbles.

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36

Plaque of the Ergastines

Part of frieze from Parthenon. Scene from Panatenaic friend; first time in Greek art that human events are depicted on a temple. Contains a religious procession of women dressed in contemporary drapery and acting nobly

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37

Victory adjusting her sandal

Part of the balustrade on the Temple of Athena Nike, a war ­monument. One of many figures on the balustrade. Not a continuous narrative but a sequence of independent scenes.

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38

Grave stele of Hegeso

Grave marker. Use of contrapposto in the standing figure. Text includes name of the deceased. Erected in the Dipylon cemetery in Athens

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39

Winged Victory of Samothrace

Large heroic figure of Nike placed above the marble prow of a naval vessel. Monumental figure. Made to commemorate a naval victory in 191 B.C.E. Found in 1863 in situ on Samothrace.

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40

Athena, from the Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

Describes the battle between the gods and the giants. The gods’ victory over the giants offers a parallel to Alexander the Great’s defeat of the Persians. Also acts as an allegory of a Greek military victory by Eumenes II.

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41

Seated Boxer

Rare surviving Hellenistic bronze. Older man, past his prime, looks defeated. May have been a good luck charm for athletes. Nude fighter; hands wrapped in leather bands

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42

Athenian Agora

A plaza at the base of the Acropolis in Athens with commercial, civic, religious, and social buildings where ceremonies took place.

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43

Parthenon

Architects: Iktinos. Interior built to house a massive statue of Athena; also included the treasure of the Delian League. Greek predilection for algebra and geometry is omnipresent in the design of this building. Constructed under the leadership of Pericles

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44

Temple of Athena Nike

Architect: Kallikrates. Amphiprostyle | Ionic Temple. Built to commemorate the Greek victory over the Persians in the Battle of Marathon

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45

Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

Altar is on an elevated platform at the top of a dramatic flight of stairs. A frieze 7.5 feet high and more than 400 feet long wraps around the monument. Altar dedicated to Zeus and Athena

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46

Niobides Krater

First time in vase painting that isocephalism. For ceremonial use. Called in that name because the killing of Niobe’s ­children is depicted on one side.

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47

Alexander Mosaic

Extremely complex interweaving of figures; spatial illusionism through foreshortening, chiaroscuro, reflection in shield. Use of tesserae instead of previously used pebbles. A copy of a mural made by Piloxenos of Eretria for King Cassander.

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48

Temple of Minerva

Little architecture survives. Temple raised on a podium; defined visible entrance. Deep porch places doorways away from the steps. Dedicated to Athena (Minerva)

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49

Tomb of the Triclinium

Ancient convention of men painted in darker colors than women. Painted tomb in an Etruscan necropolis. Named after an ancient Roman dining table, which appears in the fresco.

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50

Sarcophagus of the Spouses

Full-length portraits. Great concentration on the upper bodies, less on the legs. A married couple, whose ashes were placed inside, or perhaps a large urn used for the ashes of the dead.

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51

Apollo from Veii

One of four large figures that once stood on the roof of the temple at Veii. Part of a scene from Greek mythology involving the third labor of Hercules. May have been carved by Vulcan of Veii, the most famous Etruscan sculptor of the age.

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52

Romulus and Remus

According to legend, ____, abandoned twins, were suckled by a she-wolf, and later established the city of Rome on its fabled seven hills.

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53

Augustus Caesar

Civil war in the late Republic caused a power vacuum that was filled by Octavian, later called ____, who became emperor in 27 B.C.E.

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54

House of Vettii

Private citizen’s home in PompeiiOriginally built during the Republic with early imperial additions.Two brothers owned the house; both were freedmen who made their money as merchants.

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55

The Colosseum

meant for wild and dangerous spectacles—gladiator combat, animal hunts, naval battles. Accommodated 50,000 spectators. 76 entrances and exits circle the façade. The name comes from a colossal statue of Nero that used to be adjacent.

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56

Petra

was a central city of the Nabataeans, a nomadic people, until Roman occupation in 106 C.E.

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57

Great Temple of Petra

Nabataean concept and Roman features such as Corinthian ­columns. The city was built along a caravan route. Approached through a propylaeum and a grand staircase that leads to a colonnade terrace in the lower precincts.

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58

Treasury of Temple (Petra)

In reality, it was a tomb, not a “treasury,” as the name implies. Greek, Egyptian, and Assyrian gods on the façade. Monuments carved in traditional Nabataean rock-cut cliff walls.

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59

Forum of Trajan

Large central plaza flanked by stoa-like buildings on each side. Originally held an equestrian monument dedicated to Trajan in the center. Built with booty collected from Trajan’s victory over the Dacians.

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60

Basilica of Ulpia

Law courts held here; apses were a setting for judges. Said to have been paid for by Trajan’s spoils taken from the defeat of the Dacians. Grand interior space (385 feet by 182 feet) with two apses.

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61

Trajan Markets

Semicircular building held several levels of shops. Main space is groin vaulted; barrel vaulted area with the shops. Multilevel mall. Original market had 150 shops.

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62

Pantheon

it was built as a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods. It may have been dedicated to a select group of gods and the divine Julius Caesar and/or used for court rituals. It is now a Catholic church called Santa Maria Rotonda.

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63

Pentheus Room

A chamber in the Palace of Knossos that features a fresco depicting the mythological story of King Pentheus of Thebes. In the fresco, Pentheus is shown being torn apart by his own mother and other women, who were under the influence of the god Dionysus. The room is believed to have been a place for ritualistic activities related to the worship of the god.

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64

Head of a Roman patrician

A marble sculpture dating back to the 1st century CE, depicting the head of a Roman patrician. It is believed to have been created during the Flavian era and is currently housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek museum in Copenhagen. The sculpture showcases the idealized facial features of a wealthy and powerful Roman nobleman, with a strong jawline, prominent nose, and deep-set eyes.

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65

Augustus of Prima Porta

A marble statue of the Roman emperor Augustus, discovered in 1863 in Prima Porta, Italy. It stands 2.03 meters tall and depicts Augustus in military attire, with his right arm extended and his left hand holding a scepter. The statue is believed to have been created around 20 BC and is considered a masterpiece of Roman art, showcasing the emperor's power and divine status.

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66

Column of Trajan

A 625-foot narrative cycle (128 feet high) wrapped around it150 episodes, 2,662 figures, 23 registers—continuous narrative. Scenes depict the preparation for battle. Visitors who entered were meant to wander up the interior spiral staircase to the viewing platform at the top

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67

Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus

Roman sarcophagus depicting a battle scene, possibly the Battle of Romans and Goths. Made in the 3rd century AD, it's now housed in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome.

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68

Good Shepherd fresco

Restrained portrait of Christ a pastoral motif in ancient art going back to the Greeks.

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69

Catacomb of Priscilla

passageways beneath Rome that extend for about 100 miles and contain the tombs of 4 million dead. Has some 40,000 burials. Called in that name because she was the donor of the land for her family’s burial.

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70

Santa Sabina

Early Christian parish church. As in the Jewish tradition, men and women stood separately; the men stood in the main aisle, the women in the side aisles with a partial view. Founded by Pope Celestine I (422–432).

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71

Hagia Sophia

Originally a Christian church. Built on the site of another church that was destroyed during the Nike Revolt in 532.Patrons were Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora. Converted into a museum in 1935; reconverted into a mosque in 2020.

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72

San Vitale

A Christian Church. Mysterious space symbolically connects with the mystic elements of religion. Banker Julianus Argentarius financed the building.

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73

Justinian Panel

The Emperor, as the central image, dominates all; emperor’s rank indicated by his centrality, halo, fibula, and crown. Dressed in royal purple and gold. Divine authority symbolized by the halo

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74

Archbishop Maximianus

patron of San Vitale

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75

Theodora Panel

The Empress stands in an architectural framework holding a chalice for the Mass and is about to go behind the curtain. Slight displacement of absolute symmetry with the Empress. She is simultaneously frontal and moving to our left. Figures are flattened and weightless

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76

Vienna Genesis

First surviving illustrations of the stories from Genesis. Genesis stories are done in continuous narrative with genre details. Written in Greek. Perhaps done in a royal workshop

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77

Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well

Genesis 24: 15–61.She was shown twice, emerges from the city of Nahor with a jar on her shoulder to go down to the spring. She quenches the thirst of a camel driver, Eliezer, and his camels. Colonnaded road leads to the spring. Roman water goddess personifies the spring.

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78

Jacob Wrestling the Angel

Genesis 32: 22–31.Jacob takes his two wives, two maids, and eleven children and crosses a river; the number of children is abbreviated. At night Jacob wrestles an angel. The angel strikes Jacob on the hip socket.

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79

Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George

Pre–Iconoclastic Controversy icon. Virgin and Child centrally placed; firmly modeled..Saints Theodore and George flank Virgin and Child. Angels in background look toward heaven.

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80

Lindisfarne Gospels

The first four books of the New Testament. Used for services and private devotion. Manuscript made from 130 calfskins. Written by Eadrith

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81

Eadrith

bishop of Lindisfarne.

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82

Cross-carpet page

From the Book of Matthew from The Book of LindisfarneMixture of traditional Celtic imagery and Christian theology.Cross depicted on a page with horror vacui decoration.

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83

Saint Luke portrait page

From The Book of Lindisfarneidentified by Greek words using Latin characters: “Hagios Lucas.” There is also Greek text.Identity of the calf is acknowledged in the Latin phrase “imago vituli.”

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84

Saint Luke incipit page

Numerous Celtic spiral ornaments are painted in the large Q; step patterns appear in the enlarged O. Naturalistic detail of a cat in the lower right corner; it has eaten eight birds. Incomplete manuscript page; some lettering not filled in.

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85

Church of Sainte-Foy

Church built to handle the large number of pilgrims: wide transepts, large ambulatory with radiating chapels. Radiating chapels housed relics of the saints.

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86

Last Judgment

Largest Romanesque tympanum.124 figures densely packed together; originally richly painted. Cautions pilgrims that life is transitory and one should prepare for the next life.

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87

Reliquary of Sainte-Foy

Child saint’s skull is housed in the rather mannish-looking enlarged head. Jewels, gems, and crown added over the years by the faithful, as acts of devotion. Reliquary of a young girl martyred in the early fourth century

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88

The Bayeux Tapestry

Tells the story (in Latin) of William the Conqueror’s conquest of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.perhaps in a cathedral hung from the pillars in the nave or walls. Probably designed by a man and executed by women.

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89

First meal from the Bayeux Tapestry

Norman’s first meal in England, at the center is Bishop Odo, who gazes out as he offers a blessing over the cup in his hand.

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90

Cavalry attack from the Bayeux Tapestry

The cavalry could advance quickly and easily retreat, which would scatter an opponent's defenses allowing the infantry to invade. It was a strong tactic that was flexible and intimidating.

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91

Romanesque portal

a doorway. In medieval art they can be significantly decorated.

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92

Chartres Cathedral

The first church to have flying buttresses as part of the original design. Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary; a Marian shrine. Importance of the church reflected in the speed of construction: 27 years. Part of a complex that included a school, a bishop’s palace, and a hospital.

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93

Westminster Hall

Meant for grand ceremonial occasions: coronations, feasts. Later used as a law court to dispense justice. Hammerbeam style roof; made of oak; beams curve to meet in the center of the ceiling like a corbelled arch.

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94

Great Portals of the West Façade

These portals were used by church hierarchy, not commoners, as the entry to the church. Called Royal Portals because the jamb sculptures depict kings and queens from the Old Testament. Three portals linked by lintels and 24 capitals that contain the life of Christ

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95

Röttgen Pietà

Christ emaciated, drained of all blood, all tissue, all muscle. Originally vividly painted, some paint survives. This work shows the humanizing of religious themes. An Andachtsbild

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96

Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere

Part of a lancet stained-glass window in Chartres Cathedral. Color patterns on the cathedral's gray stone represent the divine. Bands across the surface are typical of Early Gothic stained glass.

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97

Scenes from the Apocalypse

From a Bible moralisée (Moralized Bible), Gothic Europe. Eight medallions; format derives from the stained-glass windows. Luminosity of text a reflection of stained-glass windows; strong black outlining of forms. Moralized Bible

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98

Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France

Blanche of Castile, mother and regent to the king. Made of illuminated manuscript, ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum.

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99

Golden Haggadah

56 miniatures; gold leaf background. This Haggadah was used primarily at home. Two unknown artists, probably Christian. Painted around the Barcelona area of Spain.

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100

The Plagues of Egypt from the Golden Haggadah

This illustrates the plague of the first-born. In the upper-right scene, a man is struck by an angel's sword; In the left scene, the queen mourns her baby lying lifeless on a nurse's lap; The third scene, not recorded in the Bible, probably represents the funeral of the first-born.

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