CLAS 1020 Unit 4 Review Sheet

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Wedding of Peleus and Thetis


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Wedding of Peleus and Thetis

Prophesy foretold that the son of Thetis would be greater than the father; wedding hosted by the Gods


goddess of Discord; threw the golden apple that cause Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena to argue and cause Trojan War

Judgment of Paris

a contest between the three most beautiful goddesses of Olympus--Aphrodite, Hera and Athena--for the prize of a golden apple addressed to "the fairest". , Paris has to decide on the most beautiful goddess and chose Aphrodite because she promised him Helen.


Wife of Menelaus, Queen of Sparta


King of Sparta, brother of Agamemnon, and husband of Helen, he helped lead the Greeks in the Trojan War. He offers Telemachus assistance in his quest to find Odysseus when Telemachus visits him in Book 4.


king of Mycenae, son of Atreus, husband of Clytemnestra, murdered by her and Aegisthus; brother of Menelaus, supreme commander of all Achaea's armies and leader of the largest contingent at Troy


daughter of Agamemnon; sacrificed to Artemis at Aulis so Greek Army can advance to Troy


King of Argos; fought and wounded Ares and Aphrodite (with a spear) during the Trojan War with the help of Athena


King of Pylos and a former warrior in the Trojan War. Like Odysseus, Nestor is known as a clever speaker (tries to mediate b/w Achilles and Agamemnon). Telemachus visits him in Book 3 to ask about his father, but Nestor knows little of Odysseus's whereabout.

Ajax the Greater

Son of Telemon; 2nd greatest fighter of Greeks; fought with Odysseus for Achilles' armor (lost), killed self by falling on own sword

Ajax the Lesser

Son of Oileus; raped Cassandra in Athena's temple during the sack of Troy; she punishes him by shipwreck and struck by lightning bolt


son of Thetis; Greatest Greek warrior, husband of Briseis whom Agamemnon steals, only vulnerable place is his heel, prophecy that he would die in the Trojan war, which he does at the hand of Paris


Soldiers under Achilles' command. From Phthia; "Ant-Men" who blindly followed orders


best friend and squire of Achilles; killed by Hector while wearing Achilles' armor to help rally the troops

Odysseus (= Ulixes)

Son of Laertes and Anticleia, king of Ithaca; husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus. A cunning, shrewd and eloquent hero. Came up with the idea of the Trojan horse (with help from Athena) which led the Greeks to victory against Troy. "Man of many wiles".

Gods on Greek side

Hera, Athena, Poseidon, (Zeus)


king of Troy, father of Priam. made a deal with Neptune and Apollo for them to build great walls of Troy, then reneged and refused to pay them. Gods destroyed all except Priam (seemed the runt of the litter)


King of Troy; father of Hector, Paris, and Cassandra


Queen of Troy, wife of Priam, and mother of Hector and Paris.


Prince of Troy, killed by Achilles in a duel outside the walls of Troy


The wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax, she futilely warns Hector about the war, then sees both her husband and son killed by the Greeks. After the war she is made concubine to Neoptolemus


Hector and Andromache's infant son; Neoptolemus killed him by throwing him off the walls of Troy

Paris (= Alexander)

Prince of Troy who fell in love with Helen; caused the Trojan War due to his and Aphrodite kidnapping of her; killed Achilles by shooting him with an arrow through the heel (guided by Apollo)


A mythical Greek warrior who was a leader on the Trojan side of the Trojan War; escaped the destruction and was prophesied to go found a new civilization in Italy (would become Rome)

Gods on Trojan side

Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, (Zeus)


Daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo in a Troy-allied town; Agamemnon's war prize after conquering the town; eventually taken back to her town because Apollo sent the Greeks' a plague.


A war prize of Achilles. When Agamemnon is forced to return Chryseis to her father, he appropriates her as compensation, sparking Achilles' great rage.


preist; seer or prophet who counsels the Greeks

Catalog of Ships

Book 2; immense amount of ships launched to reclaim Helen "the face that launched 1000 ships"; conveyed the massive size of the Achean army

Duel between Paris and Menelaus

Paris is losing the duel but Aphrodite saves him and brings him back to Helen


Watching from the walls; Book 3


A Trojan archer. Pandarus's shot at Menelaus in Book 4 breaks the temporary truce between the two sides.

Aristeia of Diomedes

Chapter in book 5 of Iliad. Aeneas is nearly killed, but is rescued by Venus and Apollo

Truce with Glaucus

Tells tale of Bellerophon

Embassy to Achilles

Book 9; In despair at the Trojan successes, Agamemnon sends Odysseus, Ajax (son of Telamon), and Phoenix (tells Meleager tale) to offer gifts and honor to Achilles in restitution for the dishonor done to him, if he will return to the fighting. But Achilles refuses.


the portion of Book 10 of the Iliad in which the Trojan spy Dolon is captured and killed by Odysseus and Diomedes.


(Book 16) Achilles' squire and friend goes to war since Achilles doesn't. He borrows Achilles' armor and Patroclus becomes his 'alter ego'. Achilles prays for Patroclus and Patroclus is successful in killing the Trojan Sarpedon.

Arms of Achilles

Armor forged for him by Hephaestus (commissioned by mother Thetis); ecphrasis; Book 18


(Book 20) Aeneas gets rescued again (not destined to die in Troy) Zeus tells Gods that they may return to the battlefield and fight on either side, Apollo (as Lycaon) convinces Aeneas to attack Achilles who almost kills him but Poseidon saves Aeneas. Achilles kills Polydorus which makes Hector charge at him, again Achilles is about to kill him when Apollo saves Hector.

Death of Hector

-Son of Prium -Stands against Achilles, asks for honorable burial but Achilles replies he'd rather eat Hector's flesh -Prium breaks through Greek lines and begs for Hector's body; he gives it to him and the two lament deaths in the war [this is the end of the Iliad] -Book 22

Ransom of Hector by Priam

(Book 24) Niobe tale. Gods decide to send Hermes to rescue Hector's body but Hera wont allow it. Zeus tells Thetis to get Achilles to return Hector's body to Priam for ransom. Hermes ensures Priam's safety on the way to Achilles' ships. Achilles and Priam cry and dine together. They agree on 11 day truce for mourning, Hector is buried.

Queen Penthesilea

Killed by Achilles in a duel; an Amazon

Suicide of Ajax the Greater

After losing battle over Achilles' armor to Odysseus, decides to commit suicide by falling on his own sword

Philoctetes (owner of the bow of Heracles)

Son of Poeas; wounded on the way to Troy and abandoned on Lemnos; Troy was fated to fall to the bow of Heracles, which Philoctetes carried; Philoctetes kills Paris.


Athena would not allow the destruction of Troy until this statue was removed; Diomedes and Odysseus sneaked into the city at night, killed some guards, and stole it

Trojan Horse

a large hollow wooden figure of a horse (filled with Greek soldiers) left by the Greeks outside Troy during the Trojan War; designed by Odysseus with help from Athena


(Greek mythology) the priest of Apollo who warned the Trojans to beware of Greeks bearing gifts when they wanted to accept the Trojan Horse; hurled spear at the Horse and was later killed by two serpents as punishment; constellation Ophiuchus?


Greek soldier that convinces the Trojans he was abandoned by their fleet and advises them to bring the horse inside the city to earn divine favor

Pyrrhus (= Neoptolemus)

The son of Achilles. Appears in Aeneas's account of the siege of Troy as the brutal murderer of Priam and Priam's sons.