U.S. History Unit 2

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46 Terms
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ally

to join in a mutual beneficial relationship

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levy

to impose or collect [a tax]

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French and Indian War

1754-1763 war between Britain, France, and their allies for control of North America. George Washington learned that British fighting tactics would not work and adapted guerrilla war tactics

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Treaty of Paris of 1763

treaty that ended the war between France and Britain

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Militia

a group of civilians trained as soldiers who serve in emergencies’ they came from local areas rather than the entire country

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Fort Duquesne

French fort on Virginian land that led to fighting

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Fort Necessity

British fort built near Fort Duquesne to prepare counterattacks

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Proclamation of 1763

issued by King George III in 1763 to restrict colonists from colonizing past the Appalachian Mountains to maintain peace with Natives and keep control over colonists. Disliked by many of the colonists

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George Washington

first American hero and general in the American Revolution. Leader of the Continental Army (and the first president of U.S.)

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Albany Plan of Union

a plan written by Benjamin Franklin for the 13 colonies to unite against the French and Indian. Rejected for fear that King George III would lose power over colonies.

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Proclamation

a public or official announcement

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Representation

the action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being represented

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tyranny

cruel and oppressive government or rule

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repeal

revoke or annul a law or congressional act

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boycott

withdraw from commercial or social relations with country, organization, or person as a punishment

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Martyr

a person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs

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declaration

an announcement, often that is written and official

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coerce

to persuade someone forcefully to do something that they are unwilling to do

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petition

a document signed by a large number of people demanding or asking for some action from the government or another country

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unite

come or bring together for a common purpose or action

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unalienable

not transferable to another or not capable of being taken away or denied

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Quartering Act

law that required colonists to house all British soldiers in 1765

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Sugar Act

in 1764, a law that placed a trade tax on sugar, molasses, and other products imported by colonies

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Stamp Act

in 1765, a law that required colonists to buy a stamp for every piece of paper they used, including newspapers, wills, contracts, diplomas, licenses, playing cards, etc. enraged colonists because of taxation without representation

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Sons of Liberty

protest group formed in Boston that had around 20-30 members (Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Paul Revere, Benedict Arnold, Joseph Arnold, etc.) forms of torture and protest included tarring and feathering, hot tea, burning/hanging effigies, destroying homes, etc.

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Daughters of Liberty

women signed pledges to boycott British goods, made their own supplies

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Declaratory Act

in 1776, law that stated Parliament had supreme power over colonies in “all cases whatsoever”. Passed simply to reassert Parliament’s control over colonial affairs

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Townshend Acts

in 1767, law that taxed popular everyday items, such as glass, paint, lead, and tea. Named after Charles Townshend

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Boston Massacre

on March 5, 1770, a group of colonists threw snowballs at soldiers and started a scuffle. Messy fight and 5 colonists died, including Crispus Attucks. John Adams stood up for soldiers and colonists were very angry.

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Tea Act

in 1773, law that gave the East India Company the exclusive right to sell tea to the colonists.

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Boston Tea Party

on December 16, 1773, Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans and threw 342 chests of tea in the Boston Harbor

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Coercive/Intolerable Acts

harsh laws passed in 1774 to punish the Massachusetts colony, including Boston Harbor being closed down, trials being held in England, and the Quartering Act now applied to all colonies. DID NOT WORK ON THE COLONISTS.

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Patriots

group of people ready to separate from England

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Loyalists/Tories

People who are loyal to England

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First Continental Congress

September 5 - October 26, 1774, 56 colonial leaders met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to discuss about relationships with England and drafted the Declaration of Rights. They decided to keep boycotting goods and train colonial militias for war

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Declaration of Rights

document stating the basic rights of colonists written at the First Continental Congress

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Patrick Henry

“Give me liberty or give me death!”

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Midnight Ride

Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott travelled to Concord and Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock of British movements. Also warned militia in Concord of the threat. April 18, 1775

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Battle of Lexington

8 colonists died and is seen as a British victory. Fired the first shot of the revolution (shot heard around the world)

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Battle of Concord

Americans considered this battle an encouraging start, because British suffered around 74 losses and 200 wounded compared to 49 dead and 41 wounded for the colonists

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Second Continental Congress

After King George III refused to listen to the colonies, they held a second meeting, where they created the Continental Army with George Washington in charge and created the Olive Branch Petition as the last attempt to restore the relationship. King George III refuses to read it.

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Olive Branch Petition

The colonists’ last attempt at restoring their relationship with England; King George refused to read it. Written at the Second Continental Congress.

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Battle of Bunker Hill

a battle at Breed’s Hill Charlestown, Massachusetts on June 17th, 1776 over control of Boston Harbor. “Don’t fight until you see the whites of their eyes” British victory because colonists ran out of gunpowder. Fighting over Boston Harbor

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Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that convinced thousands of colonists that independence from Britain was “common sense”

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Declaration of Independence

the official document that stated that the colonies were separating from England and WHY they were separating. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson.

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Thomas Jefferson

part of the congress and the one who drafted the Declaration of Independence.

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