# 1. Chapter 1 - Psychological Statistics

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### 28 Terms

1

Nominal

Number is assigned to represent something or someone

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2

Ordinal

Convey order or rank alone

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3

Interval

No true zero and distributed in equal units

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4

Ratio

Have a true zero and are distributed in equal units

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5

Population

Entire set of individuals or items of interest

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6

Sample

Representative subset of a population

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7

Data from a population are termed

parameters

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8

Data from a sample are termed

statistics

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9

A researcher tests whether the dosage level of a some drug (low, high) <i>causes</i> significant differences in health.

Experiment

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10

A researcher tests whether citizens of differing political affiliations (Republican, Democrat) will show differences in attitude toward morality.

Quasi-experiment

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11

A researcher measures the relationship between annual income and life satisfaction.

Correlational

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12

A researcher assesses how students perform on exams in relation to how much time they spend watching lecture videos.

Correlational

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13

Experimental Method

-Experiment- any study that demonstrates cause

-Cause has 3 components:
1. manipulation
2. randomization
3. comparison/control

-Random Assignment renders groups equivalent (Requirement 2)

-At least 2 groups (Requirement 3)
-Experimental Group
-Control Group

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14

Independent Variable (IV)

Is changed/controlled

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15

Dependent Variable (DV)

-Doesn't change
-Is tested and measured
-Proposed effect

-Operational Definition-how will DV be measured

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16

Experimental Group

-Exposed to IV
-New Teaching Method

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Control Group

-Not exposed to IV

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18

Quasi-Experiments

-A non-manipulated IV (classification variable)
-Lack of random assignment to groups; and/or
-Lack of control (comparison) group

~Example: Do boys and girls (IV) differ in number of aggressive behaviors (DV)?

~Example: Are there differences between 20-year-old and 40-year-olds (IV) in reaction time (DV)?

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19

Correlational

1. Quantifies the strength and direction of a relationship between two (or more) variables (x and y)
2. Variables measured as they naturally occur
3. Lack of random assignment

-Lacks control to determine cause-effect

-CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION!!!

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20

Statistics

Mathematical procedures used to summarize, analyze and interpret observations

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21

Data

Numbers to observations according to rules called "scores" or "raw scores"

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22

Classification of Quantitative Data

Quantitative Data
↓------------------------------↓
Categorical Quantifiable
↓------------↓ ↓-------------↓
Nominal Ordinal Discrete Continuous
↓------------------↓
Interval Ratio

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23

Descriptive

-Summarize and organize scores
-Presented graphically, tables, single values

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24

Inferential

-Allows sample results to be generalized to representative populations
-Infer meaning

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25

Descriptive Statistics

Summarize sample results

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26

Inferential Statistics

Generalize to populations

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27

Sample and Population Example

(SAMPLE)150 patients with depression → (POPULATION) depression patients

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28

Science

-Systematic study of relationships
-Applied using the research method

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