Anatomy and Physiology Nervous System Exam

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communication: sends and recieves info as well as integration and decision making

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1

communication: sends and recieves info as well as integration and decision making

What does the nervous system do?

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sensory/ afferent, integration, and motor/efferent

What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?

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sensory

What function brings sensory info into the CNS

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integration

What function processes info and makes decisions

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motor

what function gives outgoing information to effector tissues?

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the brain and spinal cord

The central nervous system consists of

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nerves and receptors

the peripheral nervous system consists of

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special senses and somatic

What are the 2 sections of the sensory/ afferent pathway?

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detect pain, tactile info, temperature, proprioception

what does the somatic system do in the afferent pathway

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somatic and autonomic

What are the 2 sections of the motor efferent pathway?

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outgoing information to skeletal muscle

the somatic efferent pathway gives what?

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involuntary

What autonomic nervous system is

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sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric

The autonomic nervous system can be divided into what 3 sections

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sympathetic

Fight or flight system, increases heart rate and blood pressure

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parasympathetic

rest or digest system, decreases heart rate and blood pressure

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enteric

system that innervates smooth muscle and glands in the GI

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neurons

What is the functional unit of the nervous system?

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astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, oligiodendrocytes

What are the 4 glial cells of the CNS

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astrocytes

Helps form blood brain barrier and regulates ion concentrations

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microglia

phagocytes that get rid of debri and microbes

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ependymal cells

simple ciliated cuboidal cells that line ventricles and central canal of the CNS -circulates and secretes cerebrospinalal fluid

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oligodendrocytes

wraps around and insulates the neurons of the CNS

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Schwann Cells

responsible for myelination in the PNS

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satellite cell

provides structural support and regulates fluid exchange in the PNS

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nerve fibers

What are extensions from cell body of neurons

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synapse

Where neuron meets another neuron or connective tissue

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propogates

the axon _____ electrical signal

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the axon hillock

Where is action potentials generated

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dendrites

Branches off the cell body of neurons

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to recieve signals

What are the functions of dendrites

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microtubule track

What is the pathway for protiens to carry down track

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physical

Axonal transport transports _____ substances

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slow and fast

What are the 2 types of axonal transport

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cell body to axon terminal

Slow axonal transport goes in what direction

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bidirectional

fast axonal transport is ___-

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retrograde

what is the type of transport that goes from axon terminal to the cell body

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multipolar, bipolar, and psuedounipolar

What are the 3 structural classifications of neurons

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multipolar

Neuron structure that has several dendrties and one axon

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bipolar

neuron structure that has one main dendrite and one axon

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pseudounipolar

neuron structure that has dendrites and one axon that are fused togehter to form a continuous process that emerges from the cell body

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ganglia

clusters of cell bodies in the PNS

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nuclei

clusters of cell bodies in the CNS

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nerve

bundles of axons in the PNS

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tract

bundles of axons in the CNS

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white

matter that contains myelinated axons of neurons

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gray

matter that has no myelination of axons

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dura mater, skull cap, blood brain barrier, cerebrospinal fluid

What are the protective coverings of the CNS

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dura mater

What is the most superficial meninge

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dense irregular CT

what is the dura mater made of

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arachnoid mater

what is the web-like appearance mater made of collagen and elastic fibers

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the pia mater

What is the deepest meninge

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epithelial and simple squamous

what type of tissue and cells is the pia mater

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interstital fluid

What is the subdural space filled with

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CSF

what is the subarachnoid space filled with?

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shock absorption

What do the fluids in space between meninges help

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to regulate what passes from the blood to the brain

What is the function of the blood brain barrier

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tight junctions, astrocytes, and thick basement membranes

What three things help secure capillarys in the blood brain barrier

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mostly water, with some ions that are highly regulated

What is CSF made of

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mechanical protection, chemical protection, and circulation

What are the 3 major functions of CSF

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lateral ventricle> 3rd ventricle> cerebral aqueduct> 4th ventricle> either subarachnoid space or central canal of spinal cord> reabsorbed into venous circulation

Describe the flow of CSF

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equal

Rate of formation of CSF is ____ to rate of absorption of CSF

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Brainstem, diencephalon, cerebellum, and cerebrum

What are the 4 major regions of the brain

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midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

What are the 3 sections of the brainstem?

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midbrain

coordinates movement of the head, neck, and trunk after visual stimuli

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pons

relays motor information to cerebellum -"bridge"

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medulla oblongata

cardiovascular and respiratory control center

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thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland

What are the 3 sections of the Diencephalon

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thalamus

relays almost all sensory information to the brain

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hypothalamus

responsible for endocrine functions, thirst hunger, and temperature

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pineal gland

makes and secretes melatonin for sleep regualtion

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cerebellum

coordinates movement, balance and posture

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arbor vitae

the cerebellum contains a tree like structure called

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cerebral cortex

what is the outer gray matter of the cerebrum

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deep

the cerebrum has ____ nuclei

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corpus callosum

bridge between the right and left side of the brain

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frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula

What are the lobes of the cerebrum

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frontal lobe

has motor functions, contains the motor cortex

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parietal lobe

contains the somatosensory cortex, recieves nerve impulses for touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle, temp., pain and proprioception

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temporal

audio and olfactory processing lobe

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occipital lobe

recieves visual information and is involved in visual perception

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insula

recieves impulses for taste and is involved in gustatory perception and taste discrimination

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medulla oblongata to 2nd lumbar vertebrae

The spinal cord runs from where to where?

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shorter

The spinal cord is ____ than spinal column

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conus medullaris

What is the end of the spinal cord called

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31

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there

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the cord is tissue the column is bony structure

What is the difference between the spinal cord and spinal column

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ventral

motor nerves are always on the ____ side

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dorsal

sensory nerves are always on the _____ side

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brings information up to or down from the brain

White matter in the spinal cord does what?

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epinerium

the dura mater fuses with waht around the spinal cord

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dorsal root

What is A

<p>What is A</p>
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dorsal gray horn

What is B

<p>What is B</p>
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central canal

What is C

<p>What is C</p>
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sensory neuron

What is d

<p>What is d</p>
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autonomic motor neuron

what is e

<p>what is e</p>
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sensory motor neuron

what is f

<p>what is f</p>
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interneuron

what is g

<p>what is g</p>
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ventral gray horn

what is h

<p>what is h</p>
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ventral root

what is i

<p>what is i</p>
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lateral gray horn

what is j

<p>what is j</p>
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