Mao History Vocab

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Confucian Ideals

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Confucian Ideals

Stressed need for harmony and balance in human affairs. Teachings provided a moral/ethical code of behavior. Valued hierarchy, patriarchy.

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Qing Dynasty

221-208 BCE. Last dynasty which was ruled by the Manchu people after they were overthrown by revolutionaries - began to isolate themselves from Western culture and followed Confucian ideology.

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Three Obediences

Women are obedient to their fathers, then to their husbands, and then to their sons.

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Opium Wars

Mid-19th century were a critical juncture in modern Chinese history. The first war (1839-1842) ended in the Treaty of Nanjing between Great Britain and China. The second war (1856-1858) involved France and Great Britain and ended in the treaty of Tianjin. China's losses gave Western states greater privileges in China and began a period referred to as 'semi-colonialism' by the present government

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Warlords

1916-1928. Men who ruled areas of China through the exercise of military force. In the north and west of China, warlords continued to dominate provincial governments into the 1940s

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Treaty of Versailles

Settlement after WWI. China played a minor role with European allies. Former German concessions were granted to Japan instead of returned to China, and China's expectations for generous treatment were dashed.

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Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

Communist party, originally consisting of intellectuals and students, defeated Nationalists and became political leaders of China.

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Comintern (Communist International)

Organization founded by Lenin to spread communism throughout the world. Partnered with CCP in 1923, but the partnership ended after Sun's death in 1925.

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Nationalists/Guomindang/Kuomintang (GMD/KMD)

Nationalist Party, founded by Sun Zhongshan.

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Sun Yat-sen

Nationalist party leader, father of the Chinese Republic

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Shanghai Massacre

April 1927. The Nationalists, specifically Chiang Kai Shek, struck against Communists in Shanghai, ending the alliance between CCP and GMD as well as the loss of trust, legitimacy, influence, and support on Chiang's end.

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Northern Expedition

A military campaign from 1926-1928. Led by Chiang Kai-shek to eliminate the warlords and unify China. It was successful and led to Chiang's presidency. Cooperation between CCP and GMD.

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Nanjing Decade

1928-1937. Nationalist revolution, tried to unify China against warlords and Communists.

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Jiangxi Soviet

Founded in 1931 on the border of the rural provinces Jiangxi and Fujian. Mao was the leader, and his government relied on the efforts of peasants.

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Long March

Journey of CCP in retreat from Jiangxi Soviet base after attacks by GMD from 1934-1935. High death rate

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Zunyi Conference

Meeting at the end of the Long March. CCP rejected Moscow-trained advisors and decided to follow Mao (start of Mao's rise to leadership in CCP)

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Rape of Nanjing

Late 1937, over a period of six weeks, Imperial Japanese Army forces brutally murdered hundreds of thousands of citizens—including both soldiers and civilians—in the Chinese city of Nanjing. Revenge for Chinese resistance.

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People's Liberation Army (PLA)

The principal military force of the People's Republic of China and the armed wing of the Chinese Communist Party - the official name of China's forces

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Taiwan

Island off the coast of China, where the Republic of China is based. After China's civil war between the CCP and the Nationalists, Chiang and his Nationalists retreated here.

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Hong Kong

As a result of the treaty settlements after the Opium War of 1839-1842, this area was ceded in perpetuity to Britain. Returned to Britain in 1997, the area is now a special administrative region of China

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Chiang Kai-Shek

President of China and Taiwan. Rose to power in Nationalist Party with his leadership in the Northern Expedition, after the death of Sun Yat-Sen. Purged Communists from cities.

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Zhou Enlai

China's Premier and head of State Council. Raised with European education, international perspective. In charge of foreign policy.

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May Fourth Movement

May 4, 1919. Mass movement against the Japanese. Went against the government crackdown. CCP & GMD emerged from political confusion.

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Yan'an

Base of Mao's communist forces after the Long March.

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First United Front (1927-1934)

Alliance between CCP and GMD. Formed National Revolutionary Army.

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United Front against the Japanese 1936

Alliance between CCP and GMD during Second Sino-Japanese war & WWII.

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Otto Braun

Convinced Communists to abandon guerilla warfare tactics.

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Mao Zedong

Leader of CCP, overthrew Nationalists, ruled China until 1976.

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Harry S. Truman

US President, supported Nationalists. Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. He is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945

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Speak Bitterness Meetings

Part of land redistribution process. Villagers were encouraged to tell about past abuse of landlords.

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Mutual Aid Teams

The first step towards collectivization of the peasants. They were organized into groups of about 10 households, sharing labor, tools, and animals, but maintaining control of their land.

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Struggle Meetings

Common form of public humiliation. Verbal or physical abuse until confession.

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Suppression of Counter Revolutionaries Campaign

1951 campaign against bandits, secret societies, GMD, etc. Crush opposition to CCP.

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Mao Zedong Thought

Maoism. Mao's interpretation of Marxism and Leninism.

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Mass Line

Economic policy in 1955. Led to formation of agricultural cooperatives and collectives. Peasants lost land.

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Volunteerism

Offering your time/services to others without payment.

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People's Liberation Army (PLA)

China's armed forces, CCP.

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Red Guard

Starting in 1966, included the youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. Wore red arm bands and carried his book. Terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps.

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Jiang Qing

Mao's third wife. Major political figure in the Cultural Revolution, in the Gang of Four.

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Zhu De

Military figure, general of PLA. Warlord army origins, but still sponsored by Zhou Enlai.

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Liu Shaoqi

Former President of China. Educated in the USSR, served CCP as a theoretician.Became President of China after the GLF, and rebuilt the economy.

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Cadre

Supporter of communist cause, member of the communist party. Regional and county leaders.

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National Party Conference

Body of over 2,000 delegates chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels. Meets every 5 years to rubber stamp decisions by party leaders. Elects members of the Central Committee. Elect core leadership = run country.

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Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

political body that comprises the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party

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Politburo

Policy-making committee of Communist Party.

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National People's Congress

The legislature of the People's Republic of China. It is under the control of the Chinese Communist Party and is not an independent branch of government. Technically the legislative branch, the largest party, but the Party Congress makes most decisions.

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Great Leap Forward (GLF)

Mao's campaign to strengthen the economy. Motivated people to work day and night with the promise of a better future.

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Little Red Book (Quotations from Chairman Mao)

Pocket-sized book containing Mao's words. Everyone in the military was required to read and memorize the quotes.

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Anti Rightist-Campaign

Campaign in 1957 to identify and remove CCP members who were not adequately 'left' or pro-Communist.

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Treaty of Alliance and Friendship (1950)

Treaty between China and USSR. Provided for Soviet loans to China and assignment of Soviet technicians to assist in China's modernization. Abrogated in 1958.

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Josef Stalin

Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communist Party after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928-1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush all opposition.

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Kim Il-Sung

Communist president of North Korea from 1972-1994.

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Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

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Nikita Kruschev

Emerged as a leader in the Soviet Union after the death of dictator Josef Stalin. In 1956, he advocated reform and indirectly criticized Stalin and his methods. He became the Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958-1974.

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Sino-Soviet Split

Khrushchev was pursuing peace with the US, asking for concessions from China, and placing Russian advisors in China. Mao broke off relations with the USSR in 1958.

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Deng Xiaoping

Deputy Premier, Secretary-General of CCP, partly educated in Europe. Became 'paramount leader' after Mao's death.

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Richard Nixon

US president, started peaceful relations between US and China.

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One China Policy

China's view that there is only one legitimate China, but that it can incorporate different systems, like Hong Kong (a former colony of the UK), and Taiwan.

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Uighurs

Turkic Muslim people who live in Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region in northwestern China.

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Tibet

After the establishment of a new government, Chinese military units signed an agreement with the Dalai Lama (17 Point Agreement). Provincial reorganization caused the people to live outside of new borders, causing violent revolts in 1955 against Chinese influence on culture.

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Assimilation

to bring into the population, the culture - the melting pot theory where everyone becomes one, eliminate cultural differences

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Pluralism

system which permits the peaceful coexistence of different lifestyles and convictions

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Land Reform Campaign:

Overthrow of landlords, redistribution of land to peasants.

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Agrarian Reform Law of 1950

Mao Zedong takes all of the land from the landlords and divides it equally among the peasants. Over one million landlords were killed by Mao's forces because they resisted the policy.

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Four Pests Campaign

1950s CCP campaign to eliminate rats, mosquitoes, flies, and sparrows.

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Agricultural Producers Cooperatives (APCs)

Called upon farmers/peasants to pool resources and land in order to increase production. Led to the formation of communes.

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100 Flowers Campaign

A brief period from 1956-1957 in China where intellectuals were encouraged to share their ideas. Censorship was lifted as well. This obviously did not last long when criticism against Mao surfaced. Was reversed and the intellectuals who spoke out were in trouble.

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Danwei

A work unit. In the Maoest era, every worker belonged to a work unit that paid his salary, provided health care, housing, child care, and other services.

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3 Anti Campaign

Against corruption at the government level. Waste, corruption, bureaucratism.

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5 Anti Campaign

Against corruption at the business level. Corruption, tax evasion, stealing state property, cheating on state contracts, stealing state economic secrets.

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Five Year Plan

Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. Tried to improve the heavy industry and improve farm output, but this resulted in famine.

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Cooperativization

Eased farmers into the socialization of agriculture. Retained land ownership, but had a common land pool.

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Collectivization

Private agricultural ownership to giant government operations.

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People's Communes

Large rural communities during GLF. In charge of all aspects of life. Disbanded in the 1980s, replaced by a system of household and village-based agricultural production.

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Lushan Conference

Retreat for CCP leaders. Mao denounced his colleague Peng Dehuai for criticizing the Great Leap Forward. Following this, Mao stepped down as president but remained as chairman and head of the military

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Peng Dehuai

PLA general and war hero. After he criticized the GLF, Mao took away his positions of power.

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Socialist Transformation Economy

In 1952 the Soviets and the Chinese established a State Planning Commission and fleshed out the organization of significant economic committees. Developed a five-year plan which would run from 1953-1957. Paved the way for productive forces and presented the foundations for socialist industrialization. Provided a substantial flow of income in the labor sector with a highly centralized government.

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Socialist Education Campaign

The movement's goal was to cleanse politics, economy, organization, and ideology (the four cleanups). It was to last until 1966. What this movement entailed was that intellectuals were sent to the countryside to be re-educated by peasants

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Lin Biao

General in PLA, Minister of Defense under Mao, published Little Red Book.

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Four Olds

Culture, Customs, Habits, Ideas

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Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR)

1966 political movement. Violence against 'disloyal' people, destroyed Four Olds, Red Guards.

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Capitalist roader

In anti-capitalist Mao Zedong thought, a capitalist roader is a person or group who demonstrates a marked tendency to bow to pressure from bourgeois forces and subsequently attempts to pull the Revolution in a capitalist direction

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Marriage Law of 1950

Made men and women legally equal, set minimum ages for marriage, outlawed concubines, and granted women the right to sue for divorce.

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National Minority

55 ethnic minority groups are recognized by the government (Non-Han population)

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Regional Autonomy System

Gave ethnic minorities in China a political system to assemble an autonomous government body, protects ethnic minorities' rights and benefits

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Han Chinese

Largest ethnic group in China.

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