Ch. 1 : The Study of Body Function

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Definition of Physiology: (think, "the study of...")

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36 Terms

1

Definition of Physiology: (think, "the study of...")

The study of biological function; how the body works

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2

Name the various levels:

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Organ Systems

  • Organisms

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3

How is information about the body obtained?

By the scientific method, hypothesis-drive experimentation

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4

Cells

the fundamental unit

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5

Tissues

groups of same cell type

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6

Organs

multiple tissues w/ a common function

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7

Organ System

multiple organs

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8

Organism

multiple organ systems

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9

Circulatory/Cardiovascular System consists of:

heart and vessels

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10

Respiratory

lungs and air passageways

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11

Digestive/Gastrointestinal

digestive tract, glands

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12

Urinary/Renal

kidneys, bladder

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13

Musculoskeletal

muscles, tendons, bones

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14

Nervous

brain, spinal cord, sensory organs

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15

Endocrine

pituitary gland, thyroid, etc.

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Reproductive

ovaries, uterus, testes

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17

Definition of homeostasis:

  • State of relative constancy of the internal environment

  • The framework we use for physiology concepts, need to maintain certain range for our health

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18

Give examples of homeostasis mechanisms

  • Body temperature

  • Sodium

  • Glucose

  • pH

  • Oxygen

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19

What two concepts are important for understanding physiological homeostasis?

Exchange and communication

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20

What does ICF stand for and what is it?

Intercellular Fluid and it's fluid within the cell

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21

What does ISF stand for and what is it?

Interstitial Fluid and it's fluid around the cells, within the tissue

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22

plasma

Fluid component of blood, within blood vessels

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23

Changes in a physiological variable are detected by a _______

sensor (senses the change)

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24

Where is the information sent?

Integrating center (coordinates output)

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Afferent pathway does what?

Carries information TO the integrating center

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Efferent pathway does what?

Carries information AWAY FROM the integrating center

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27

The integrating center then sends it to the...

effector

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28

What does the effector do?

Produces change in the opposite direction

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29

Negative feedback

an increase or decrease in a variable which causes the variable to move in the opposite direction

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30

Name two examples of negative feedback

Maintenance of body temperature:

  • Shivering = response to decreased body temp.

  • Sweating = response to increased body temp.

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31

Dynamic constancy

Levels change over short periods of time, remains relatively constant over long periods of time

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32

Name the four primary tissues

  • Muscle

  • Nervous

  • Epithelial

  • Connective

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33

Muscle Tissue

Used for contraction

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Nervous Tissue

Used for generation & conduction of electrical events (carries information to support functions)

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35

Epithelial Tissue

Forms membranes covering and lining body surfaces and glands compromised of these membranes

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36

Connective Tissue

characterized by large amount of extracellular material; blood, bone and cartilage (fills space)

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