Test 1 (Ch. 1-3)

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71 Terms

1

research

the discovery of answers to questions through the application of scientific systematic procedures

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2

social science research

conducted through the use of scientific and systematic methods and is based on the assumption that research can uncover patterns in the lives of people

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3

quantitative

objective, numbers

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4

qualitative

subjective, observes situations

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5

empirical

both methods are based on observations or experiences of communication

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6

what is your relationship with research?

you are either conducting it or consuming it

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7

proprietary research

research that is owned by an individual or organization for its own use and not in the public domain

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8

who does scholarly research?

researchers or scholars who have been trained in research methods and procedures to conduct research

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9

what is the process scholarly research goes through to be public

  1. paper is submitted to a conference for a presentation or a journal/book for publication

  2. experts review the paper to test its validity and credibility

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10

primary goal of research

to describe communication phenomena as well as to discover and explain the relationships among them

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11

4 results of research

describe behavior: outcomes, processes (motive for someone lying)

determine causes of behavior: help future

predict behavior: be aware of future; aid decision making

explain behavior: understanding the why

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12

theory

related set of ideas that explains how/why something happens

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13

theories cannot be…

formulated, tested, and verified in one research study. Theories are tested overtime

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14

communication as a social science

uses quantitative and qualitative methods to look for patterns of messages of communication behaviors (both methods must be empirical)

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15

rhetoric research

planned for a specific goal or audience

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16

social science research

focuses on interactive moment between and among conversational participants (is contextually and culturally bound)

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17

critical communication scholarship

focuses on understanding the domination inequality and oppression that can occur through communication practices and structures

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18

scientific approach

  1. question/problem

  2. hypothesis

  3. reasoning

  4. design and conduct observation, measurement, or experiment

  5. data is analyzed and interpreted

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19

how do researchers determine the significance of a question

theoretical significance, social importance, and personal interest

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20

question of definition

provide definitions for phenomena in which we are interested (the what)

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21

questions of relationships

if, how, and the degree. to which phenomena are related (the how)

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22

questions of cause and effect

ask and answer if one or more variables are the cause of one or more outcome variables (the why)

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23

question of value

ask for individual’s subjective evaluations of issues

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24

phenomena

assess normality

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25

questions of policy

use results to recommend a course of action

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26

characteristics of science

  1. based on evidence

  2. testable

  3. replicable

  4. public record

  5. measured and observed

  6. minimizes bias and distortion

  7. generalizability

    1. heuristic

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27

generalizability

you can extend the findings to a greater population

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28

heuristic

encourages further questions (your research leads to more questions)

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29

how do you use theory in the research process

  1. theory provides us with the patterns for interpreting data

  2. theory links one study to another

  3. theory provides a framework for understanding how concepts and issues are important or significance

    1. theory helps us interpret the larger meaning of research findings

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30

deductive research

begins with the theory and then gathers evidence or data to assess whether the theory is correct (like an inverted pyramid; it starts with the theory then gets to the answer)

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31

inductive research

begins by gathering evidence or data and then develops a theory in response to what data revealed (like a normal pyramid; start with the research problem then find the theory)

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32

research questions should not

assume anything (do not ask how until you have asked does; always evaluate your questions and rephrase as you do more research)

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33

how many parts are there in a research article?

5 (6 including abstract)

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34

what are the parts of a research article

  1. introduction

  2. literature review

  3. methods

  4. results

    1. discussion

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35

where do you find the thesis of a research paper?

the last few paragraphs of the introduction

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36

where do you find the hypothesis of a research paper?

the last few paragraphs of the literature review (lit review also includes all of the previously found information on the topic)

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37

where are the instruments explained in a research paper?

methods (instruments are surveys, interviews, or observations that you will do; also explains how they got their participants) METHODS IS WHO AND HOW

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38

why is the results section not usually read?

it is full of statistical information that is hard to read

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39

where do you go to read the so what and conclusions about the study?

the discussion

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40

who is responsible for conducting ethical research?

EVERYONE (researchers and students)

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41

ethical considerations are part of

the research process

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42

what is the tuskegee study?

it was a study on syphilis where the researchers withheld men from penicillin to see the extent of the symptoms of syphilis and many men died because of it

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43

what is the belmont report?

a National Commission formed to identify fundamental ethical principles for research

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44

what sparked the belmont report?

the tuskegee syphilis case

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45

what are the 3 ethical principles the belmont report is based on?

  1. beneficence

  2. respect for persons

    1. justice

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46

what is beneficence?

the benefits of the study outweigh the risks (the well being of the participant is protected and the benefits are maximized) `

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47

what is respect for persons?

the participants have autonomy (independence; the ability to choose to participate or not; no coercion)

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48

what is justice?

the fairness of the selection of participants (am I systematically selecting one group of participants?)

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49

what does IRB stand for?

Institutional Review Board

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50

What does the IRB do?

determines if the study is reasonable, sound, and if the participants are protected in the research design (ensures the study is ethical)

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51

what do you submit to an IRB?

All of the information of the study (all of your instruments, why you are doing this research, how you will carry it out, who you will use, any documents or permissions pertinent to the study)

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52

can you collect data before getting an IRB approval?

no

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53

how long do you have to collect data once you obtain IRB approval?

one year

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54

what is a PI

principle investigator (the main researcher over the study)

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55

what is informed consent?

explaining to the participant exactly what will go on in the study and the participant willingly agreeing (in a manner they understand)

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56

components of informed consent

  1. how will the consent of the participants be gained?

  2. how will confidentiality and anonymity be handled?

  3. are participants appropriate for the study?

  4. are there potential physical or psychological harms?

  5. how will the researcher’s role affect the study?

  6. is the research design valid or credible?

    1. is the researcher capable of conducting the study?

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57

what is confidentiality?

researcher knows who the information came from but does not share it with anyone else (researcher must tell the participant where the information will be stored)

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58

what is anonymity?

the researcher does not even know who said or did what (completely anonymous)

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59

intentional deception

intentionally deceiving (falsifying) participants to get more honest answers (giving generic reasoning so participant’s responses are not swayed)

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60

use of confederates

researcher uses someone else to help them in the study who acts like a participant (usually used to see if the participants are influenced by others even when the answer is wrong)

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61

physical and psychological harm

can the participants harm themselves physically or mentally in the study

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62

uphold anonymity and confidentiality

researcher assures the participants that the information will be kept to themselves and where it will be stored

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63

videotaping and audiotaping participants

researcher must get participants’ consent

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64

debriefing participants

researchers responsibility to tell the participants EVERYTHING you did in the study and about the study (if you used intentional deception, use of confederates, etc.)

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65

what is efficacy?

the ability to produce desired results, but the benefits must outweigh the risks

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66

when reporting research…

make sure you submit to a peer reviewed journal and you are protecting the participants identity

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67

what is the researcher’s role for ensuring accuracy?

the researcher is always responsible for the accuracy of the study regardless of who helps them

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68

how do researchers avoid plagiarism?

by using direct quotes with proper citations, summaries or paraphrasing, and acknowledging ideas or contributions (self-plagiarism is included in this)

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69

hypothesis

a proposition to explain something (an educated guess based on the literature review, which shows what you already know and the hypothesis shows what you hope to find)

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70

research question

broad question because there is not enough information to pose a hypothesis

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71

why is it called the belmont report?

The document was drafted at the Belmont Conference Center

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