APUSH Unit 1 ID Terms

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Columbian Exchange

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Columbian Exchange

the transfer of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old World of Europe and Africa and the New World of the Americas

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Encomienda System

Labor system established by the Spanish Crown in the 1500s

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Mestizo

a man of Spanish and Indigenous descent

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Bartolome de las Casas

A 16th century Spanish friar, social reformer, and the first European to advocate for Native rights.

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Treaty of Tordesillas

an agreement between Spain and Portugal supported by the Pope dividing South America between them with an imaginary line called the line of demarcation

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Pueblo Revolt

1680 uprising of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish who rules the Southwest. Finally revolted when the Spanish tried to force them to convert to Catholicism.

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The Atlantic World

Commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American native peoples stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks and reshaped labor systems.

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Mercantilism

the idea that a country’s wealth is measured by the amount of gold it owns. Exports > Imports

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Richard Hakluyt

the Oxford clergyman who argued for colonies on the basis of new markets and alleviation of poverty and unemployment.

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Puritans

non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England.

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Pilgrims

The original group of Puritan separatists that fled religious persecution in England and found refuge in Massachusetts. Were against the Anglican Church and England entirely.

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Roanoke

Est. in 1585, this was the 1st English settlement in North America. The colony mysteriously vanished.

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Chesapeake

The region of Virginia and Maryland. Distinguished by indentured servants, cash crops, and African slavery

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Virginia Company

Chartered as a joint stock company and tasked with creating a profitable settlement in Virginia.

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Jamestown

First successful settlement in Virginia colony founded in May, 1607

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house of burgesses

First elected legislative assembly in the colonies.

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headright system

System in which 50 acres was granted to each settler in the 13 colonies.

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Bacon’s Rebellion

Uprising of Western Farmers against the government of Virginia leading to the burning of Jamestown in 1676

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William Berkeley

Governor of Virginia appointed by King Charles I, enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676

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Nathaniel Bacon

Farmer in the backcountry. Wanted to kill and fight Natives.

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George Calvert

First Lord Baltimore. Catholic nobleman who was given control of the Chesapeake Bay, was given Maryland where he wanted to create a haven for Catholics

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Cecilius Calvert

Second Lord of Baltimore. Inherited Maryland after his father, George died in 1632

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Royal Colony

A colony that was directly ruled by a monarch according to the laws of England.

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Charter colony

a colony chartered to an individual, trading company by the British Crown

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Mayflower Compact

The first agreement of self-government in America signed by 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth Colony.

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Plymouth Colony

Colony formed by the Pilgrims when they arrived at Plymouth Rock in 1620; absorbed by Massachusetts bay colony in 1691. Different from other colonies because it was established to worship God, rather than make money.

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William Bradford

Pilgrim, second governor of the Plymouth Colony, who was elected more than 30 times. Developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt.

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Great Migration

Mass Migration of Puritans from England to Massachusetts and the West Indies

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

Chartered in 1629 and settled by about eleven thousand Puritans. Governed by John Winthrop who declared the colony should be “a city upon a hill”, in which Puritans of the Bay Colony would build a model religious community based on Puritan beliefs and values.

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John Winthrop

Governor and founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Delivered the famous “City upon a Hill” speech.

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Anne Hutchinson

Puritan woman who was well learned and disagreed with the Puritan Church in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island.

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Antinomianism

An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that faith alone, not deeds was needed for salvation

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Roger Williams

Puritan minister in Massachusetts Bay who challenged Puritan orthodoxy leading him to be banished from the colony in 1635

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Pequot War

War fought between Pequot Indians and English colonist of Massachusetts Bay. Connecticut and Plymouth colonies

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King Philip’s War

Series of conflicts between Native Americans and English Settlers between 1675 - 1676. Resulted in the destruction of several English settlements and decimation of Indian bands in New England

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Quakers

“Society of Friends” sought refuge from persecution in England; rejected earthly and religious hierarchies and denied the need for a mediator between God and people.

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William Penn

Prominent Quaker, was granted a colony (Pennsylvania) by Charles II

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Carolinas

Colony founded in 1653, some settlers were from Barbados (Caribbean island with a harsh slave system)

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James Oglethorpe

British General and member of the house of parliament. Formed the colony of Georgia in 1732 as a place for the poor of Britain to resettle. Banned slavery

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New England Colonies

Connecticut, Rhode Island, Providence Plantations, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth colonies, and the province of New Hampshire. Settled by puritans. Economy depended on fishing, lumbering, and subsistence farming.

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Middle Colonies

Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. Had English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish, French, Native American tribes of Algonkian and Iroquois language groups, and a sizable percentage of African slaves during the early years. Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians. Economic activity consisted of agriculture, logging, shipbuilding, textiles production, and paper making.

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Southern Colonies

Consisted of Maryland, Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia. Developed economies off of the cultivation of cash crops like tobacco, indigo, and rice. Presence of slavery was significantly higher than in other parts of British America.

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Navigation Acts

1663; Required that all European goods that were sent to any of the colonies had to go through England first, in order to makes sure that all foreign imports to the colonies were paying proper taxes on those goods.

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Indentured Servitude

form of labor in which a person is contracted to work without salary for a specific number of years. People who could not afford passage to the colonies would become Indentured servants.

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Middle Passage

Part of a forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600s.

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Slave Codes

Decrees of the conditions of slavery for blacks. Made African Americans into property and made the distinction between a servant and slave.

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Tobacco

Cash crop planted by profit-hungry settlers. Quickly exhausted the soil and prices began to depress. Idea to fix this was to plant more, and more of it meant more need for labor.

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Indigo

Eliza Lucas experimented with it in South Carolina and found that it dyed clothes blue. Became a profitable labor crop.

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Triangular Trade

System of trade most closely associated with the transatlantic slave trade. Was between the West Coast of Africa, the colonies, and Europe.

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Stono Rebellion

50 black slaves revolted and tried to march to Spanish Florida but were eventually stopped by the militia. This proved slaves to be a more manageable labor force than indentured servants. Revealed tensions that continued in slaves states throughout the next century. 1739

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Colonial cities

Centers of trade in the colonies.

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Great Awakening

Religious revival that impacted the English colonies in American during the 1730s and 1740s/

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George Whitefield

Great preacher that was loved by everyone in the colonies. He preached of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity.

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Jonathan Edwards

American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the Great Awakening. Known for his “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” sermon.

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Hardvard and Yale

Colleges that followed Puritan beliefs and purposes were to train ministers.

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enlightenment

Eighteen-century movement in Western philosophy. People saw the sad state of human condition and the need for major reforms. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals.

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John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people. Also said people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

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John Peter Zenger

Newspaper printer. He used the press to protest the power of the royal governor in 1734-1735 and he was put on trial for “treason”.

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Salutary neglect

Unofficial British policy of non-enforcement of trade regulations on their American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. Purpose was to maximize economic output amongst the colonists while maintaining some form of control.

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weekly journals/newspapers

Were instrumental with regards to spreading news around colonies; especially important with regards to the road to the Revolutionary War

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Albany Congress

Attempt to form confederation between colonies and Iroquois before the French and Indian War. Failed. Iroquois broke off relations with Britain and threatened to trade with French. 1754

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Albany Plan of union

(1754) Idea of Benjamin Franklin. It would have established a centralized government to oversee the colonies and to shore up defense prior to the French-Indian War.

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Iroquois Confederation

Collection of six tribes that all lived mainly in present day New York, and had a very strong democracy that US is based upon.

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French and Indian War

(1754 -1763) (Seven Years War) conflict between France and Great Britain.

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Peace of Paris of 1763

Treaty between Britain , France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War. France lost Canada, the east of the Mississippi. some Caribbean islands and India to Britain

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Pontiac’s Rebellion

An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War that began in the Great Lakes region of North America in 1763.

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Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Required settlers that already lived west of the mountains to move back east.

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Sugar Act

First law passed by Parliament that raised tax revenues in the colonies for the crown. It increased duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies. (1764)

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writs of assistance

Executed so that the British soldiers in the colonies could undertake general searches of colonial homes and ships for smuggled goods. Part of the Townshend ACts

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March of the Paxton Boys

1764, A group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. Made an armed march on Philadelphia and protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

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Regulator Movement

Movement during the 1760’s by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed and many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.

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Stamp Act

an act passed by the British Parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American Colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

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Stamp Act Congress

Assembly of delegates from nine colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote intercolonial unity

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Sons / Daughters of Liberty

Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements.

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Mercy Otis Warren

The head of patriot women during the revolution. Produced many writings questioning the declining republican values in post-revolutionary America.

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Declaratory Act

1766, Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.

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Townshend Act

1767, External, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another round of protests in the colonies.

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Quartering Act

1765, Required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists resented the act, which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights.

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Boston Massacre

1770, Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed British redcoats, who fired on the jeering crowd, killing or wounding eleven citizens.

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Sam Adams

American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers. Leader of the American Revolution and the second cousin of John Adams.

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Virtual Representation

Term used by the British to argue that colonists were represented in Parliament and the member of Parliament gained the right to speak for the interests of British subjects.

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Actual Representation

In order to be taxed by Parliament, the Americans rightly should have actual legislators seated and voting in London.

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Tea Act

1773, Gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, and made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents per pound

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boston tea party

demonstration by citizens of Boston who raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor (1773)

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Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts

1773, Series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the Port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for the lodging of soldiers in private homes.

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First Continental Congress

(1774) Convention of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts.

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committees of correspondence

A system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

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Lexington and Concord

(1775) These battles initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British.

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Second Continental Congress

(1775) Representative body of delegates from all thirteen colonies. Established a Continental Army and created the Olive Branch Petition.

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Olive branch petition

(1775) Conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. Petition was rejected it so revolution was inevitable.

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Thomas Paine

A passion and persuasive writer who published Common Sense. Preferred revolution to reform

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Common Sense

(1776) Article written by Thomas Paine arguing that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals.

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Thomas Jefferson

Republican who believed that the future of the US would lie in the hands of farmers. Third president of the US and the principal author of the Declaration of Independence.

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declaration of independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain

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articles of confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states; it provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no coercive power over the states or their citizens

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Revolutionary War

(1775-1783) The war for independence of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain

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saratoga

a battle during the American Revolution; the British under Burgoyne were defeated. Gave the Americans a decisive victory over the British in Revolutionary War. (1777)

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yorktown

a historic village in southeastern Virginia to the north of Newport News; site of the last battle of the American Revolution (1781)

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Paris Peace Treaty of 1783

Ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States of America and its allies.

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Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to the parliament and to the King. They opposed rebellions against the parliament’s various acts and taxes

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