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  • the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way to generate new concepts, methodologies and understanding. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes


  • the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that link an individual’s speculation with reality

  • the systematic study of a trend which involves the careful collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of quantitative data or facts that relate man’s thinking with reality

Basic Research

  • also called “fundamental research” or “pure research”

  • seeks to discover basic truths or principles

  • intended to add to the body of scientific knowledge by exploring the unknown to extend the boundaries of knowledge as wells as to discover new facts and learn more accurately the characteristics of the known without any thought as to immediate practical utility

Applied Research

  • this type of research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as the development of a new system or procedure, new device or new method to solve the problem

Developmental Research

  • this is decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices

• Research allows you to pursue your interests, learn something new, hone your problem-solving skills, and to challenge yourself in new ways. • It is valuable life skills for life and class such as professionalism, time management, and learning how to use online research tools. • It communicates your ideas and how to analyze and critique the work of others. • It's a tool for building knowledge and facilitating learning. • It's a means to understand issues and increase public awareness. • It helps us succeed in business. • It allows us to disprove lies and support truths. • It is a means to find, gauge, and seize opportunities. • It promotes a love of and confidence in reading, writing, analyzing, and sharing valuable information. • It provides nourishment and exercise for the mind.

• Why do we do Research?

Research Ethics

  • set of ethical guidelines that guide us on. how scientific research should be conducted and disseminated


  • principle of research ethics

  • researchers must ensure this in all forms of scientific communication with colleagues, sponsors, or the general public


  • principle of research ethics

  • avoid bias in all aspects of research


  • principle of research ethics

  • maintain consistency of thought and action


  • principle of research ethics

  • always avoid errors or negligence


  • principle of research ethics

  • share information about your research and be open to criticism and new ideas


  • principle of research ethics

  • disclose all the necessary information needed to evaluate your research


  • principle of research ethics

  • be responsible for all concerns related to your research

Intellectual Property

  • principle of research ethics

  • avoid plagiarism, give proper credit to all contribution in your research and honor all forms of intellectual property


  • principle of research ethics

  • protect and safeguard all confidential information recorded in your research

Responsible Publication

  • principle of research ethics

  • publish for the sole reason to advance the knowledge in your field

Responsible Mentoring

  • principle of research ethics

  • help and mentor other researchers and promote their welfare

Respect for Colleagues

  • principle of research ethics

  • respect and treat all your colleagues fairly

Social Responsibility

  • principle of research ethics

  • aim to promote social good through your research


  • principle of research ethics

  • avoid discrimination in all forms against colleagues


  • principle of research ethics

  • improve your own personal competence and also promote the competence of science as a whole


  • principle of research ethics

  • obey all relevant laws and policies

Animal Care

  • principle of research ethics

  • respect and care for animal species

Human Subject Protection

  • principle of research ethics

  • respect human dignity and take special precautions wherever needed

Research Problem

  • a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature

  • typically posed in the form of a question

  • does not state how to do something, offer a vague or broad proposition, or present a value question

  1. Introduce the reader to the importance of the topic being studied

  2. Places the problem into a particular context

  3. Provides the framework for reporting the results

• Purpose of a problem statement

Research Approaches

  • a procedure selected by the researcher to collect, analyze and interpret data

Quantitative data

  • kind of research approach

  • a numerical, which requires statistical analysis methods to interpret the data.

  • statistical analysis methods include finding the mean, median, standard deviation, variance, etc.

Qualitative data

  • kind of research approach

  • narrative or visual, which requires thematic analysis to interpret the data.

  • the thematic analysis uses words and sentences to code and gathers intro categories

Research Objectives

  • describe what we expect to achieve by a project

  • usually expressed in lay terms and are directed as much to the client as to the researcher

  • may be linked with a hypothesis or used as a statement of purpose in a study that does not have hypothesis

  • must be achievable; it must be framed keeping in mind the available time, infrastructure required for research and other resources

SMART Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-bound

• Characteristics of a Research Problem (1) The problem should be specifically stated (2) It is easy to measure by using research instruments, apparatus, or equipment (3) The data are achievable using correct statistical tools to arrive at precise results (4) Real results are attained because they are gathered scientifically and not manipulated or maneuvered (5) Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity, the better

Specialization of the researcher

• Sources of Research Problem

  • The specialization of the researcher is an impetus toward research

Current and Past Research

• Sources of Research Problem

  • This is a rich source of research problems even for research replication by using the same instrument, apparatus or equipment

Recommendation from theses, dissertations and research journals

• Sources of Research Problem

  • It recommends for future research be conducted as sources also of research problems

Original and creative ideas of the researcher based on the problems met in the locality and country

• Sources of Research Problem

  • Through the original and creative ideas of the researchers of the problems which conducted a study on the utilization and commercialization


• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • a research problem must attract the attention of the researcher and the other people to conduct the research project even without an incentive or research grant at all


• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • through replicability in conducting research is allowed, it is advisable that a research problem is something novel, original and uniques to attract the attention of the people and contribute to the economic development of the country


• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • a good research problem should be economical and effective in solving the needs and problems of society; it should also augment the socioeconomic and health conditions of the people and many others

Relevant to the needs and problems of the people

• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • researchers must keep in mind that they conduct research, not for their personal aggrandizement but also to solve the need and problems of the people

Relevant to the government’s trust

• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • a research problem must respond to the government’s trust

Measurable and Time-bound

• Criteria of a Good Research Problem

  • a good research problem is measurable by using research instruments, apparatus or equipment as well as statistical tools to arrive at scientific and meaningful results

Historical Method

• type of research methods

  • also know as the documentary method

  • in looking into the truth of the past event, the researchers should avail themselves of the use of documents on recorded infromation and facts

Descriptive Method

• type of research methods

  • otherwise known as normative survey

  • concerned with the prevailing or existing status of an even or a problem under this method

  • employs data gathering procedures like: questionaire, interview and observation

Experimental Method

• type of research methods

  • the researcher focuses on what will be the outcome of the study from the point of view of the future with the manipulation of one independent variable under control and observes the effect on one or more dependent variables

Causal-Comparative Method

• type of research methods

  • may also be called Ex Post Facto Research

  • draws conclusions from an observation dervied from what had already taken place

Participatory Method

• type of research methods

  • requires the researcher’s participation in undergoing the activities within the bounds of the problem sought for investigation

  • the researcher interacts with the samples to personally observe, evaluate, criticize and interpret the findings as assessed

Case Method

• type of research methods

  • also called the historic genetic method

  • delves to the study of the past, the present and the future of the subject case

Statistical Method

• type of research methods

  • a method where researchers make use of quantitative measurements

  • the data are communicated in form of mathematical figures and quantities

  • the researchers uses laws of statistics in the presentation of data