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Anasazi, Pueblo, cliff dwellers

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long houses, totem poles for lineage

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Great Plains

- Sioux - buffalo, 3 sisters farming

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Eastern Woodland, Adena-Hopewell=mound builders

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Iroquois Confederation

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After European contact

small pox, reliance on European goods

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European exploration

*expanding trade- new trade routes *improvements in technology- gunpowder, caravels, printing press, astrolabe *rise of nation-states

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*Colombian Exchange- transfer of plants, animals, minerals, germs back and forth across the Atlantic *Treaty of Tordesillas- line of demarcation b/w Spain & Portugal

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Spanish exploration

  • role of conquistadores

  • where?= Florida, New Mexico, Texas & California

  • Spanish policy- Valladolid Debate: what is the difference between De Las Casas vs. Sepulveda; New Laws of 1542

  • inclusion- mestizos; mission system; encomienda, asiento; caste system

  • Pueblo Revolt- several tribes including the Zuni & Hopi rebelled against Spanish rule- resulted in the diminishment of encomienda and beginning of syncretism

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French exploration

* inclusion- fur trappers, intermarriage* where- Quebec, Mississippi River Basin, N.O.

* interest- fur & Catholic converts* good relations w/ N.A. -why?

* why slow to colonize- religious conflict b/w Catholics & Huguenots- (French Protestants who fled to America

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Dutch exploration

*where- Hudson River, New Amsterdam * fur trade

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Joint-stock Company

Type of business partnership – Stocks issued by a company on exchange for contributions – Way for investors to raise money for exploration of the New World while spreading the financial risk examples: Virginia Company, Massachusetts Bay Company

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The Chesapeake

Region around Maryland, Virginia, Delaware – Swampy with more disease than other areas – Colonists less healthy – Typical immigrant was single male, probably indentured servant; economy- cash crops

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

Non-Separatists; Colonists immigrated as families – Religious freedom (Puritans) –healthier – Fishing, shipbuilding, lumbering

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Middle Colonies

- Pennsylvania, Delaware, New York, and New Jersey – Bread basket colonies – Dutch, Germans, English, Scots-Irish – Protestants, Quakers

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New England

– Colonies east of what is now New York – English, Protestants

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Hartford founded by Thomas Hooker w/ representative form of govt. w/ popular vote to elect governor; New Haven founded by John Davenport limited self-govt.; both left MBC to have religious freedom

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Sir Walter Raleigh

– Tobacco – attempted Roanoke- Lost Colony outer banks of NC

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Proprietary Colony

One or more private land-owners have rights that are usually the privilege of the state – Granted by King of England – (Example – William Penn)

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Royal Colony

Colony of English subjects – By permission of the King – Jamestown

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(1607)Virginia Company- 1 st English colony in the New World – almost failed-why?; Starving Time; John Smith- military rule; Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, married John Rolfe who cultivated tobacco

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Indian tribe from Chesapeake region – Indians that helped colonists through rough times but also fought with them sporadically

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Scotch-Irish = frontiers; Germans & Dutch,= Pa & NY; English, French Huguenots- Canada

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House of Burgesses

1st legislature in American history

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Anne Hutchinson

Banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony – Questioned men in the church – Labeled antinomian heretic (don’t have to obey laws if you are already saved by grace) – Banished to Rhode Island to help found Providence

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Roger Williams

banished from establish R.I., believed in separation of church and state, fair treatment of Native-Americans- established Providence

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Separatists; A radical minority within the Puritan movement - Wanted to remove itself from the tainted English church and worship in its own independent congregations.- settled in Plymouth

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Roger Winthrop

“City Upon a Hill”- Puritan cities like Boston should be harmonious model communities that would inspire others to emulate this Christian utopia

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Non-separatists who founded MBC- wanted to “purify” the Church of England – Believed it was too Catholic

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Indentured Servitude

– A laborer under contract of an employer for a period of time (4-7 years), in exchange for ships passage – in many cases the servant would become indebted – causing extension of time of indenture.

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Headright System

50 acres of land awarded to a landholder for each person or indentured servant brought over to the Chesapeake area

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New England Confederation

- although it was temporary, 1st time colonies allied together to fight against Native Americans; MBC, Plymouth, Ct., & New Haven

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Holy Experiment

to create a haven for Quakers, fair treatment of Native-Americans; Frame of Government- representative assembly elected by landowners; Charters of Liberties- state constitution that promised freedom of religion even for non-Quakers, pacifists, town planning- Philly

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Economic Theory – Prosperity of a nation depends on its capital – drove European nations to establish overseas colonies- theory rested upon exports>imports= profit, gold/silver, colonies served as sources of raw materials & as a market for British goods

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Middle Passage

Middle portion of the Triangular Trade voyage – Forced Transportation of Africans to the New World – Took 1 to 6 months – 9.5 to 12 million Africans arrived in the New World

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Subsistence farming

Starting in NE, most farms were family owned; less than 100 acres to sustain the family; work was mostly done by the family

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Triangular Trade

17th century; variations of a three part trade route that included North America, Europe and Africa mostly trading slaves, rum, sugar

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Salutary Neglect

– British policy – Avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws – meant to keep American colonies obedient but also flourishing – colonies could also self-govern & smuggle

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Bacon’s Rebellion

Led by Nathaniel Bacon – Against Jamestown – Wanted Gov. Berkeley to be more forceful in his treatment toward Indians – Eastern (settlements) v. Western (frontier) thought, taxation w/out rep., social classes; this would lead to the decline of indentured servitude in CB

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Glorious Revolution in England

Bloodless Revolution in NE & NY kicking out Sir Edmund Andros– Gave colonists thoughts of revolting from the crown but the new King introduced salutary neglect

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Great Migration

Migration from England (1630-1642) - Puritans realizing they could not change the Church

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King Philip’s War

defeat of Chief Metacom & Wampanoag Indians – enabled westward march of English settlement New England

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Pequot War

– New Englanders and Indian allies against v. Pequot Tribe (1637-1638) – Pequots eliminated

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Salem Witchcraft Trials

(1692) Salem, Mass. Convicted of felony witchcraft 19 hanged, 1 pressed to death – Showed intolerance and paranoia of Puritans

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1 st Great Awakening

Religious revival (1740s-1750s) – *Jonathan Edwards: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. *George Whitfield: eternal damnation unless openly profess faith in Jesus *Effects: *Old Lights vs. New Lights *Creation of new Christian sects- Baptists, Methodists *Separation of church and state to acquire followers *Politically- Colonists could make choices about their own govt….

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– Puritan faith- Reform of the Puritan Church – some questioned Predestination; some embraced Arminianism- individual free will determines a person’s salvation, not divine decree; effect of Enlightenment

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John Zenger- printer acquitted of charges

first case of freedom speech & press before the Constitution was born

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Phillis Wheatley

one of the first talented American poets, Wheatley was enslaved and wrote about her triumph of being freed

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Poor Richard’s Almanack

book published witty sayings & advice by Ben Franklin; best- selling literary work from 1732 to1757

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use of human reason to solve problems; John Locke- Two Treatises of Government, sovereignty resides with the people, not the state rationalism, Deism; natural laws- life, liberty & property inspired American Revolution & U.S. Constitution

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Stono Uprising

Slave rebellion in South Carolina; Violently put down; tighter controls

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French and Indian War

(1754-1763) – Part of Seven Years’ War – Ohio River Valley Brit. & Colonists v. French. & Indians – British acquire Canada – Fr. presence in N. A. almost completely gone –British debt

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Mayflower Compact

Temporary govt. of Plymouth Colony – Social contract / not a constitution-1 st form of self-govt. in North America

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Dominion of New England

Disbanded local assemblies – Rule from Boston – King felt colonial Assemblies had become too powerful – Sir Edmund Andros became virtual dictator over the govts. Of New England, New York, New Jersey- ended with the Glorious Revolution

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Fundamental Orders of New England

– 1st written constitution in American historyrepresentative legislature by popular vote who then chose the governor

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Halfway Covenant

Partial membership in Puritan Church – To bring people back to activity in the Puritan Church

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Maryland Toleration Act

no Christians could be persecuted; excluded Jews & atheists

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Navigation Acts

Colonial products go only to England; can only be shipped on English ships; to prevent colonial trading & smuggling

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Albany Plan of Union

1754 – Plan to unite the colonies – Idea of Ben Franklin – Single Executive (Selected by King) and Grand Council (Selected by Colonial Legislature) – “Join or Die” Flag – Plan was rejected

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British Proclamation of 1763

Colonists could not establish or maintain settlements west of the crest of the Appalachian Mountains – Indian Territory – Conclusion of French and Indian War

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Pontiac’s Rebellion

Native-Americans attacked white settlements and British forts in Ohio River Valley; Paxton Boys threatened to escalate conflict

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Stamp Act and Stamp Act Congress

1765 – Stamp/tax on all legal documents, newspapers, playing cards – To pay for British military presence in N. Am. – Stamp Act Congress– Declaration of Rights and Grievances, 9/13 colonies Attended; virtual vs actual representation

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Quartering Act

1765 and 1774 – Part of the Coercive Acts – Required troops be housed in occupied colonial dwellings

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Sugar Act

1764 – Passed by British Parliament – To raise revenue – To pay for French and Indian War; vice admiralty courts

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Declaratory Act

1766 – Act of Parliament – Claimed Parliament had the “full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force to bind the colonies and people of America”- led to Townshend acts

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Townshend Acts

1767 – Tax on lead, paper, glass, tea – Created Admiralty Courts – Raise money for Fr. and Indian War – “No Taxation /out Representation”; writs of assistance; Letter from A Pennsylvania Farmer

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Intolerable (Coercive) Acts

1774 – Response to unrest in colonies – Boston Port Act (Closed Port of Boston to all shipping); Quartering Act; Administration of Justice Act= trials of rebels held in GB; Mass. Government act= no colonial assemblies

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Quebec Act

- passed along w/ Coercive Acts, it would extend borders of Quebec down into the Ohio River Valley angering land hungry Protestant colonists

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Committees of Correspondence

Revolutionary period - Coordinate written communication – rallied opposition – establish plans for collective action

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First Continental Congress

(1774) – Met briefly – 12 Colonies – Response to Intolerable Acts – Agreed to 2nd Continental Congress; Suffolk Resolves; Declaration of Rights & Resolves; boycotts

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Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770 – Helped spark Am. Rev. – 5 killed by British soldiers – Raised resentment against British rule

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Boston Tea Party

– Protest by Sons of Liberty against Townshend Act (tax on paper, glass, tea, established Admiralty Courts) – Led to Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts-Quebec Act, Boston Port Act, Quartering Act)

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Valley Forge

Where Continental Army wintered (1777-1778) – Great deal of suffering – Baron von Steuben arrives to train the Army

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Second Continental Congress

(1775-1781) – after Lexington & Bunker Hill; appointed Washington as Comm-in-chief of Cont. army; later sent Olive Branch; Adopted Dec. of Independence & Articles of Confederation – Acted as National Government of United States (raised armies, appointed diplomats, made treaties)

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Sons & Daughters of Liberty –

Patriots or Rebels – Boston Tea Party – Paul Revere, Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Sam Adams; tarring feathering, enforced boycotts

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Republican Motherhood

women teach patriotic & democratic values to their children; Abigail Adams- political demands

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Declaration of Independence

2 nd Continental Congress – Authored by Thomas Jefferson – Adopted July 4, 1776 – Declared 13 Colonies independent of Great Britain – Spoke of reasons for independence and grievances with King George III

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Constitutional Convention of 1787

U.S. Constitution created – Great CompromiseBicameralism; Virginia (Large state) Plan (3 branches, 2 Houses, Representation based on pop.)vs. New Jersey (Small state) Plan (Equal representation) – James Madison – Strong national govt. to also protect rights of states and citizens; 3/5 Compromise; Electoral College; Commerce Clause

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Federalist Papers

85 articles arguing for ratification of the Constitution – Hamilton, Madison, Jay- aimed at New York & Virginia

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Whiskey Rebellion

– (1791-1794) – Tax on distilled drink – Alexander Hamilton’s idea to raise taxes – Soldiers under Washington stop Rebellion - 1 st time Fed. Govt. under Constitution uses force on nation’s citizens

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Quasi War

Undeclared Naval War with France – (1798-1800) – New govt. of Fr. threatened by friendship of U.S. and G.B. – Fr. began seizing U.S. ships – 1800 Peace Treaty with France; convention of 1800

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XYZ Affair

(1797) – U.S. delegation to Fr. expected to pay bribe to meet with govt. leaders of Fr. – Led to (Quasi War of 1798, bad relationship between U.S. & Fr.)

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Thomas Paine

Common Sense (1776) – From G.B. – Advanced the cause for independence of the American colonies, effects of Enlightenment

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John Adams

1 st VP (under Washington) – 2 nd President (1797-1801) – Federalist – Defended British soldiers of Boston Massacre – Continental Congress – Quasi War – XYZ Affair – Alien and Sedition Act – Midnight Judges

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Alexander Hamilton

strong central govt., pro-British, loose constructionism, pro- bank pro-commerce, pro-tariff, 6 Point Plan; Secretary of Treasury in GW’s cabinet

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Citizen Edmond Genet

(1793) – Sent to U.S. from Fr. to gain support for France’s war against Britain and Spain – Wanted to recruit and arm American privateers to join Fr. against G.B. and fight the British and Spanish in Florida – GW 

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George III (King) –

– British King during American Revolution

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First Bank of the United States

Chartered by Congress 1791 – Created to handle financial needs of the new U.S. govt. Proposed by Alexander Hamilton – Opposed by South (states rights, suspicious of the North)-elastic clause

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George Washington

Led Continental Army– 1 st President (1789-1797) – Father of the Union – Unanimously elected by the Electoral College – Whiskey Rebellion – Jay Treaty – Farewell Address

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Hamilton's 6 Point Plan

B.U.S. & the elastic clause, pay foreign debt, Assumption Bill-domestic debt at face value & Wash. D.C.; excise tax on whiskey (Whisky Rebellion); protective tariff did not pass

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Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation

1793 – U.S. to stay neutral in conflicts between G.B. and Fr.- Genet Affair endangered this policy

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Washington’s Farewell Address

– ends 2nd term (1796)- established 2 term precedent – 1. Avoid parties (caused factions) – 2. Stay out of entangling alliances– 3. Avoid sectionalism - 4. Stay neutral!!

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Shays’ Rebellion

(1786) – Rebellion in Mass.; Daniel Shays; Veterans not paid – Some lost their land/farms – Led to Constitutional Convention (Articles of Confederation too weak)

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Bill of Rights

Anti-federalists insisted this be added to the Constitution; First 10 Amendments of the Constitution – Limits power of the Federal Government – Protects rights of the citizens (Basic freedoms/Inalienable Rights)

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Articles of Confederation

Adopted 1777; by 2nd Continental Congress; 1 st governing document of U.S.; Lacked taxation or trading authority; One State/One Vote; weak national government

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Land Ordinance of 1785

– Sale of Land in Northwest Territory – Set standard for land sale by fed. Govt. – 6 sq. mile townships (36 sections) – To pay off national debt

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Northwest Ordinance of 1787

–territory to a state– Governor appointed by Congress – When 5,000 males of voting age (Territorial Legislature elected) – Send nonvoting delegate to Congress – When population reaches 60,000 (State Legislation submits State Constitution to Congress for approval

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Judiciary Act of 1789

– Established U.S. federal Judiciary – 6 Supreme Court Judges – 13 Judicial Districts – Circuit and District Courts

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Chisholm v. Georgia –

(1793) – Granted Federal Court the power to hear disputes between private citizens and states

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Jay Treaty

1794 – Bw U.S. & G.B. –– compensation for seizure of ship's cargo & leaving N.W forts was addressed; impressment & arming N-As was not- 1st use of executive privilege

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