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Intro to Biostats, Measures of Central Tendency & Variability, Variables, & Demography

1

Biostatistics

branch of applied statistics dealing with biology

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2

Epidemiology

branch of medicine dealing with the control of diseases

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3

Which of the following studies involve the study of multiple exposures that may be related to a single outcome?

a. Incidence

b. Case-control

c. Cohort

d. Cross-sectional

b. Case-control

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4

Association type: The sampling technique used in a study in order to understand the population.

A) Critical case

B) Extreme case

a. Both A and B are associated

b. Neither A nor B is associated

c. Only B is associated

d. Only A is associated

d. Only A is associated

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5

Association type: Case-control study:

A) Case - subjects have outcome of interest

B) Control - subjects do not have outcome of interest

a. Only A is associated

b. Both A and B are associated

c. Neither a nor B is associated

d. Only B is associated

b. Both A and B are associated

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6

Which of the following sampling techniques is used to surveying a specialist on a particular topic?

a. Expert case

b. Typical case

c. Critical case

d. Extreme case

a. Expert case

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7

Which of the following scales of measurement of data: Money

a. Ordinal

b. Ratio

c. Interval

d. Nominal

b. Ratio

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8

Association type: The amount of drug injected into a rat:

A) Discrete variable

B) Continuous variable

a. Neither A nor B is associated

b. Only A is associated

c. Only B is associated

d. Both A and B are associated

c. Only B is associated

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9

Which of the following suitable graph? Number of patients requesting PCR COVID-testing including the results on September 1 to September 30, 2021

a. Line chart

b. Scatter plot

c. Pie chart

d. Bar chart

a. Line chart

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10

Association type: Graphical presentation that shows X-axis - numerical variable and Y-axis - relative frequency:

A) Histogram

B) Line plot

a. Both A and B are associated

b. Neither A nor B is associated

c. Only B is associated

d. Only A is associated

d. Only A is associated

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11

1,000 health city government officials need to be surveyed to find out which told are best suited for their jobs. Assuming the margin of error used is 0.05, what is the sample based on Slovin’s formula?

a. 86

b. 286

c. 450

d. 200

b. 286

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12

Association type: Observational study provides a comparison group.

A) Descriptive study

B) Analytical study

a. Both A and B are associated

b. Only A is associated

c. Only B is associated

d. Neither A nor B is associated

c. Only B is associated

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13

Which of the following scales of measurement of data: Convalescing patients

a. Ordinal

b. Interval

c. Ratio

d. Nominal

a. Ordinal

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14

Which of the ff. suitable graphs? Study of prevalence of dengue on year 2010-2018

a. Line graph

b. Pie chart

c. Scatterplot

d. Bar graph

d. Bar graph

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15

Association type: Study rare diseases:

A) Cross-sectional study

B) Cohort study

a. Both A and B is associated

b. Only A is associated

c. Only B is associated

d. Neither A nor B is associated

d. Neither A nor B is associated

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16

Association type: Principle involved: select all units within randomly selected geographic cluster:

A) Homogenous purposive sampling

B) Simple random sampling

a. Only B is associated

b. Only A is associated

c. Both A and B are associated

d. Neither A nor B is associated

a. Only B is associated

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17

These are observations of random variables made on the elements of a population.

a. Sample

b. Label

c. Data

d. Population

c. Data

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18

Which of the ff. sampling technique with this principle: the equal chance/probability of selecting each person in the population

a. Cluster

b. Systematic

c. Simple random

d. Stratified

c. Simple random

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19

Association type: Refers to the method of getting a small part of the population:

A) Sample

B) Sampling

a. Neither A nor B is associated

b. Both A and B are associated

c. Only A is associated

d. Only B is associated

d. Only B is associated

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20

Determine the type of sampling technique with this study: Ms. Santos samples her class, selecting all students sitting at Group 1 and Group 5 in her classroom.

a. Stratified

b. Systematic

c. Cluster

d. None

c. Cluster

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21

Which of the ff. statistical application? You collect data on the SAT scores of all 11th graders in the school for 3 years.

a. Descriptive

b. Inferential

c. Both are correct answers

d. No correct answer

b. Inferential

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22

A company packaging chocolate bars maintains the quality control by randomly selecting 100 chocolates from each day’s production and weighs them. Identify the sample technique.

a. Convenience

b. Stratified

c. Cluster

d. Systematic

d. Systematic

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23

The scenario is 8:00 Monday morning, the first 100 teachers entering the front door are selected to be in the sample. This is what type of sampling design?

a. Cluster

b. Self-selection

c. Systematic

d. Convenience

d. Convenience

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24

Which of the ff. study? The hypothesis is tested and is about relationship between health problems and possible risk factors.

a. Descriptive

b. Analytical

c. Both are correct answers

d. No correct answer

b. Analytical

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25

Which of the ff. types of variable? The measurement where the difference between 2 values HAS meaning. An example is pH level.

a. Interval

b. Nominal

c. Ordinal

d. Ratio

a. Interval

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26

These are examples of a continuous variable, EXCEPT:

1) Breed of dog

2) Population of city

3) Height

4) Gender

a. 2 and 3

b. 1 and 3

c. 1, 2, and 3

d. 1 and 4

d. 1 and 4

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27

What is the mean of the group data?

Classes--frequency

10-19---7

20-29---13

30-39---15

40-49---9

50-59---16

a. 22

b. 37

c. 32

d. 27

b. 37

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28

Quota sampling is categorized as non-probability sampling. It deals with the percentage of each group in the population that must be represented in proportion in the study.

a. Both are true

b. 1st statement is true

c. Neither is true

d. 2nd statement is false

a. Both are true

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29

Which of the ff. scales of measurement of data: Election vote

a. Nominal

b. Ordinal

c. Interval

d. Ratio

a. Nominal

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30

They are often called the average of numerical set of data:

a. Standard Deviation

b. Mode

c. Mean

d. Median

c. Mean

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31

Which of the ff. study designs? It describes exposure.

a. Cohort

b. Case-control

c. Cross-sectional

d. None of these

b. Case-control

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32

Which of the ff. descriptive research does not answer?

a. Why

b. Who

c. What

d. When

a. Why

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33

Descriptive or analytic study:

How is COVID-19 transmitted to another person?

Analytic

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34

Descriptive or analytic study:

The black plague is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

Descriptive

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35

Descriptive or analytic study:

An ecological study to determine the effect of exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl incident.

Analytic

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36

Descriptive or analytic study:

Determining the underlying cause of diabetes in a community.

Analytic

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37

Descriptive or analytic study:

What date was the first incident of COVID-19 in the count?

Descriptive

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38

Identify what study design:

A study on the efficacy of apple cider vinegar (ACV) to curb appetite, wherein some participants were given a pill that contains ACV but some were given a pill that contains water.

Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)

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39

Identify what study design:

A study on diabetes using only women of ages 40-45, that are residing in Brgy. Palanan, Makati City as participants.

Cohort study

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40

Identify what study design:

A study on the prevalence of cholera in London back in the 1950s.

Cross-sectional study

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41

Identify what study design:

A study on a unique case of microcephaly wherein the head is smaller than normal when the infant experiences hypoxia.

Case-control study

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42

Identify what study design:

An incident was recorded wherein an infant was born reactive for COVID-19 right after being born.

Case report

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43

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Sample of college instruction classified according to subject taught

Nominal

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44

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Social class

Ordinal

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45

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Salaries of nurses in a hospital

Ratio

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46

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Number of exams given in a Biostatistics course

Ratio

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47

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Classification of students according to the major field

Nominal

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48

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Weights of suitcases on a selected commercial airline flight

Ratio

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49

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Horsepower of motorcycle engines

Interval

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50

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Temperatures of a sample of automobile tires tested at 55 miles/hr

Interval

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51

Identify the level of measurement of data:

Election vote

Nominal

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52

Identify the level of measurement of data:

President Duterte’s cabinet members

Nominal

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53

Count

the absolute number of population in a specified area & time

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54

Ratio

relation of 1 population subgroup to another subgroup

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55

Rate

frequency of demographic events in population during specified time period divided by population at risk that time

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56

Incidence

the number of individuals who develop a specific disease at a given time

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Prevalence

the number of individuals that have a specific disease at a given time

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Proportion

the relation of a population subgroup to the entire population

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59

Vital Statistics

branch of biometry that deals with data & law of human mortality, morbidity, and demography

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Census

the total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic, and social data pertaining to all persons in a country

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Every 10 years

Interval/frequency of census collection

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62

Valid

a quality of health indicators wherein they should measure what they’re supposed to measure

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Specific

a quality of health indicators wherein they should reflect changes only in the concerned situation

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Mortality

the state of being dead

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65

Morbidity

the state of being unhealthy/sick/ill

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