MODULE 1 Microbiology Lecture

studied byStudied by 11 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Microbiology

1 / 152

Tags and Description

Chapter 19

153 Terms

1

Microbiology

study of living organisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye

New cards
2

Virus

Bacteria n Archaea

Protozoa (Protist)

Microalga (Protist)

Yeast

Microorganism

New cards
3

  • Microscopic ( < 1mm)

  • Unicellular or colonial

  • Multicellular without highly differentiated tissues

Microbes description

New cards
4

Atom size

0.1 nm

New cards
5

C60, Lipids, Protein size

1nm - 10nm

New cards
6

Virus size

100 nm

New cards
7

Size of mitochondria and Bacteria

1 um

New cards
8

Red Blood Cell size

Between 1um and 10 um

New cards
9

Animal Cell and Plant Cell

Between 10 um and 100 um

New cards
10

Protein and human egg size

Between 100 um and 1 mm

New cards
11

Frog Egg size

1mm

New cards
12

Smallest of all microbes, requires host cell to replicate cause range of disease, some cancers

Virus

New cards
13

Cellular and Acellular

organisms can be:

New cards
14
  1. Fungi

  2. Protist

  3. Bacteria

  4. Archaea

Cellular Bacteria

New cards
15

Fungi

What kind of cellular microbes is yeast and molds

New cards
16

Protists

What kind of cellular Microorganism is Algae, Protozoa, Sime Molds

New cards
17

Bacteria

What kind of cellular Microorganism is Escherichia coli

New cards
18

Archaea

What kind of cellular Microorganism is Methanogens

New cards
19
  • viruses

  • Viroids

  • Satellites

  • Prions

Acellular microorganism

New cards
20

Viruses

Composed of protein and nucelic acid

New cards
21

Viroids

Composed of RNA

New cards
22

Satellites

Composed of Nuceleic acid enclosed in a protein shell

New cards
23

Prions

Composed of protein

New cards
24

1 Trillion

Earth is a home to ——- microbial species

New cards
25

Fermentation

Microbial processes to produce Alcoholic Beverages

New cards
26

Fermentation

Microbial processes to produce soy sauce

New cards
27

Microbial Growth

Microbial processes to produce cheeses

New cards
28

Fermentation, Leavening

Microbial processes to produce Bread

New cards
29

Ferementation, breakdown of pulp

Microbial processes to produce Coffee

New cards
30

Fermentation, breakdown of pulp

Microbial processes to produce Chocolate

New cards
31

Botulinum toxin - highly diluted

Microbial processes to produce botox

New cards
32

Biodegradation

Microbial processes for composting

New cards
33

Biodegradation

Microbial processes for sewage treatment

New cards
34

Fermentation, growth

Microbial processes for antibiotic production

New cards
35

Molecular biology

Microbial processes to produce Vaccine

New cards
36

Source of genes or as vectors for genetic engineering

Microbial importance to generate GMO’s

New cards
37

Basic

Microbiology as a field of study

  • concerned with achieveing a deeper understanding of the workings of the microbial cell and its interaction

New cards
38

Basic

Microbial Physiology ( microbiology as a field of study)

New cards
39

Basic

Microbial ecology ( microbiology as a field of study)

New cards
40

Basic

Genetic and molecular biology ( microbiology as a field of study)

New cards
41

Basic

Taxonomy and systematics ( microbio as a field of study)

New cards
42

Applied

Disease and its control ( microbio as a field of study)

New cards
43

Applied

Water and Food production ( microbiology as a field of study)

New cards
44

Applied

Industrial Microbiology ( microbiology as a field of study)

New cards
45

Applied

Micrbiology as a field of study that is concerned with practical problems

New cards
46

Agricultural microbiology

Plant pathogens, food safety, plant-beneficial microbes

New cards
47

Immunology

How the body protects a host from pathogens

New cards
48

Industrial microbiology

Production of antibiotics, biofuel, fermentation

New cards
49

Medical microbiology

Diseases of humans and animals

New cards
50

Microbial ecology

Microbial interactions

New cards
51

Microbial genetics

Control of gene expression, genomics

New cards
52

Microbial physiology

Metabolic pathways

New cards
53

Public health microbiology

Control of communicable diseases

New cards
54

Controverset over spontaneous generation > germ theory of disease > industrial application [ fermentation, Pasteurization] > Microbial ecology [ enrichment, physiology]

Development of ideas about microbes

New cards
55

Development of the microscope > culture techniques [petri dish] > control of microbes [ vaccines and antibiotics] > molecular genetics and genomics

Development of tools and methods

New cards
56

General Antonio Luna

  • scientist, soldier and revolutionary

  • Got his doctorate degree in phramacy from university of madrid where he studied malaria

  • Post doctoral at Pasteur Institute in Paris

New cards
57

Etiology

Study of the cause of disease

New cards
58

Germ Theory

Infections by pathogenic microorganism cause disease

New cards
59

Robert Koch

Developed postulates to prove particular pathogen causes a disease

New cards
60

1.5 bya

Multicellular eukaryotic organism first appear

New cards
61

2.5-2.0 bya

eukaryotic cells with mitochondria or chloroplasts first appear

New cards
62

3.5 bya

fossilsof primitive microbes

New cards
63

3.8 - 3.5 bya

first cell appear

New cards
64

RNA world hypothesis

what hypothesis states that RNA may have been an importat molecule in the pre-cellular stage of cellular evolution

  • came with the discovery of catalytic RNA

New cards
65

Ribozymes

discovery of catalytic RNA

New cards
66

RNA

have the ability to store and copy geneti information

New cards
67

lipid membrane

encloses the RNA genetic information

New cards
68

symbiogenesis

endosymbiotic theory on the origin of the eukaryotic cells

New cards
69

Systematics

scientific study of organisms with the ultimate objective of arranging them in an orderly manner

New cards
70

natural classification

arranges organism into groups whose members shares many characteristic

New cards
71

Carl von Linne’ or Carolus Linnaeus

developed the frist natural classification

New cards
72

Polyphasic taxonomy

determining the genus and sepcies of a newly isolated microbe

  • phenotypic

  • phylogenetic

  • genotypic features

New cards
73

phenetic system

  • Succeededin bringing order to biological diversity and clarified the function of morphological structures.

  • classifies organisms according to their phenotypic siimilarity

New cards
74

Genotypic classification

  • seeks to compare the genetic similarity between organisms

    • Individual genes or whole genomes can be compared

New cards
75

Phylogenetic or phyletic classification systems

  • sought to compare organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships

  • developed due to the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species in 1859

New cards
76

phylogeny

term referring to evolutionary development of a species

New cards
77

Carl Woese

George Fox

  • proposed small subunit (SSU) rNA nucleotide sequences to assess evolutionary relationships among microorganisms

  • this opened the door to the resolution of long-standing inquiries regarding the origin and evolution of themajority of life forms on earth-- Microbes

New cards
78

superphylum

  • recent development of the taxonomic classification

  • below domain and above phylum

  • includes organisms of several phyla that share a number of distinctive characteristics such as unusual morphological or metaboloc features

New cards
79

Species

collection of strains that share stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains

New cards
80

Strain

consists of descendant of as single, pure, microbial culture

New cards
81

Biovars

variant strains characterized by biochemical or physiological differences

New cards
82

Morphovars

differ morphologically

New cards
83

serovars

have distinctive antigenic (immunologically reactive) properties

New cards
84

type strain

  • holder of the species name

  • Ensures permanence of names when nomenclature revisions occur because the type species must remain within the original species

New cards
85

genus

well-defined group of one or more species that is clearly separate from other genera

New cards
86

binomial system

latinized, italicized consists of two names

New cards
87

International Journal of Sytematic and Evolutionary Microbiology

to be recognized as an new species, genomic, metabolic, morphological, reproductive, and ecological data must be accepted and pubish in the _____

New cards
88

bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology

contains only recognized baterial and archaeal species

New cards
89

clinical microbiology and immunology

methods employed in routine laboratory identification of pathogenic bacteria

New cards
90

classical approaches

makes use of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and ecological characteristics.

New cards
91

fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis

reveal specific differences in chain length, degree of saturation, branched chains, and hydroxyl groups

APPLICATION

public health, food and water microbiology

where microbiologists seek to identify specific micorbial pathogens

New cards
92

matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF)

enables the analysis of complex biomolecules that could not previously be studies by MS

New cards
93

DNA-DNA hybridization

similarity between gennomes can be compared more directly by the use of nucleic acid hybridization studies, called ________

New cards
94

Average nucleotide identity (ANI)

  • uses pairwise alignment between sequenced DNA from two organisms, is a promising replacement for DDH

  • used to compare complete genome sequences

  • used to compare short stretches of nucleotides

New cards
95

16S ; Bacteria

18S ; Eukaryotes

rRNA’s from small ribosomal subunits that have become the molecules of choice for inferring microbial phylogenies and making taxonomic assignments at the genus level

New cards
96

oligonucleotide signiture sequences

short, conserved, nucleotide sequences that are specific for phylogenetically defined groups of organisms

New cards
97

The Ribosomal Database Project website

a repository of hundred of thousands of rRNA sequences and facilitates accurate comparative analysis

New cards
98

Indels

  • taxon specific insertion and deletions

  • useful when flanked by conserved regions

New cards
99

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

requires PCR amplification of the gene encoding the rRNA to provide enought DNA fro analysis

New cards
100

ribotyping

omits the need for PCR because the rRNA genes are detected by a labeled nucleotide probe.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 151 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 198 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29286 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(95)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard143 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard104 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 975 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(13)