Chapter 18: Emotion

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studying emotion and neuroscience

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Emotion and the Brain

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studying emotion and neuroscience

Affective neuroscience

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Brain mechanisms of emotion derived from these 3 things

  • Animal models

  • Human studies

  • Brain lesions

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emo system is dif than sensory system because

  • Diversity of emotions and brain activity

  • Many structures involved in emotion

  • No one-to-one relationship between structure and function

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def 2 Early Theories of Emotion

The James–Lange theory: emotion experienced in response to physiological changes in body

The Cannon–Bard theory: emotions occur independent of emotional expression—no correlation with physiological state

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Can stimulus have emotional impact without conscious

awareness.

yes

  • Aversive conditioning to masked stimulus results in increased skin conductance (ex. sweating)

  • Increased activity in the amygdala

Many possible ways for the brain to process emotional information

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def Broca’s limbic lobe structures

Areas of brain forming a ring around corpus callosum:

  • cingulate gyrus

  • medial surface temporal lobe

  • hippocampus

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def Broca’s limbic lobe funct

high cog functioning

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The Papez Circuit

Limbic structures, including cortex, involved in emotion

  • hippocampus

  • hypothalamus

  • thalamus

  • cingulate cortex

  • neocortex

  • fornix

<p>Limbic structures, including cortex, involved in emotion</p><ul><li><p>hippocampus</p></li><li><p>hypothalamus</p></li><li><p>thalamus</p></li><li><p>cingulate cortex</p></li><li><p>neocortex</p></li><li><p>fornix</p></li></ul>
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def Papez Circuit funct

Emotional system on the medial wall of the brain linking cortex with hypothalamus

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what strengthens memory

cortosol

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what governs behavioral expression of emotion

hippocampus

  • evidence: Rabies infection implicates hippocampus in emotion -> hyperemotional responses

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Lesions to what lead to spontaneous laughing or crying

thalamus

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Evolution of limbic system allows animals to…

experience and express emotions beyond stereotyped brain stem behaviors

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Early theories of emotion and limbic system built on…

introspection and inference from brain injury and disease

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Studies of disease and consequences of lesions not ideal for revealing…

normal funct

*This is a drawback

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def 2 more recent theories of emotion

  • Basic emotion theories

  • Dimension emotion theories

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Certain emotions thought… experiences.

unique, indivisible, universal experiences

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hypothesis for basic emo theories

basic emotions have distinct representations or circuits in brain

Analogous to distinct representations for sensory experiences

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def 6 basic emotions

Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise

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fMRI shows _____ activation with the basic emotions.

different

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not single areas but…may represent emotions.

Patterns of activity

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Emotions can be…. into…. fundamental elements. Combined in… ways and… amounts

broken down, smaller, different, differing

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Emotions correspond to brain activation along dimensions such as…

valence and arousal

<p>valence and arousal</p>
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• Psychological constructionist theories of emotion

  • Variation on dimensional theories

  • Includes nonemotional psychological components

  • Emotion an emergent consequence of combined components

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• Unknown whether each emotion is represented by:

Activity in a specialized area of the brain – A network of areas – A more diffuse network of neurons

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def 3 Study approaches for defining emo

Behavioral observations – Physiological recordings – Studies of effects of lesions and disease

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ex of studying emo

studying fear and anger

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def 2 things that produced the Klüver–Bucy Syndrome

  • temporal lobectomy in rhesus monkeys

  • Temporal lobe lesions in humans—particularly lesions in amygdala

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what are the symptoms of Klüver–Bucy Syndrome

Decreased fear and aggression – Decreased vocalizations and facial expressions of fear– Flattened emotions

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what does Bilateral amygdalectomy lead to

reduced fear and aggression in all animals tested

Anger, sadness, and disgust may also be affected

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what is the S.M. case study

inability to recognize fear in facial expressions

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how does anxiety and fear in humans arise

Electrical stimulation of amygdala → increased vigilance or attention

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what does fMRI imaging show about fearful faces

Fearful faces evoke greater amygdala activity than happy or neutral faces.

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what is involved in forming memories of emotional and painful events

amygdala - learned fear

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what are Intertwined in Animals

anger and agression

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predatory aggression vs affective aggression

attack

  • Against different species for food – Few vocalizations, attack head or neck – No activity in sympathetic division of ANS.

for show

  • Used for show, not kill for food – High levels of sympathetic activity – Makes vocalizations, threatening posture

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what operation leads to less aggression in animals

Amygdala lesions in animals

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what operation leads to less aggression in humans/treats medical aggression

Amygdalectomy →

  • Reduced aggressive behavior

  • Relief from anxiety

  • Profound, unpleasant side effects

Psychosurgery—now treatment of last resort

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Removal of cerebral hemispheres but not hypothalamus →

rage beh

  • Behavior reversed with additional lesions in hypothalamus

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Hypothalamus may normally be inhibited by…

telencephalon

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• Flynn’s research on affective and predatory aggression

  • Elicited affective aggression by stimulating medial hypothalamus

  • Predatory aggression elicited by stimulating lateral hypothalamus

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Midbrain and Aggression

Two hypothalamic pathways to brain stem involving autonomic function

  • Medial forebrain bundle → ventral tegmental area; predatory aggression

  • Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus → periaqueductal gray matter; affective aggression

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A Neural Circuit for Anger and Aggression

knowt flashcard image
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what NT Regulates Anger and Aggression

Serotonin

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what is the Serotonin deficiency hypothesis

Aggression is inversely related to serotonergic activity.

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Serotonergic raphe neurons project to the hypothalamus and limbic structures via the medial forebrain bundle

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dec in Serotonin turnover →

inc of aggression in rodents

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Drug PCPA blocks serotonin synthesis →

inc in aggression

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humans: _______ correlation between

serotonin activity and aggression

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