AP Art: CH. 17 Bauhaus

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1) This figure shows the effects of ________ on ________.

A) the tilt of the Earth; the sun

B) the Coriolis effect; our seasons

C) convection cells; the tilt of the Earth

D) the tilt of the Earth; our seasons

E) gravity; the Earth

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1) This figure shows the effects of ________ on ________.

A) the tilt of the Earth; the sun

B) the Coriolis effect; our seasons

C) convection cells; the tilt of the Earth

D) the tilt of the Earth; our seasons

E) gravity; the Earth

D) the tilt of the Earth; our seasons

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2) The Southern Hemisphere tilts toward the sun during ________.

A) the December solstice

B) the March equinox

C) the June solstice

D) a time of intense solar radiation

E) a time of changing tidal forces

A) the December solstice

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3) According to the figure, the major reason we have ________.

A) tides is because of the seasons

B) tides is because of the moon's rotation around us

C) seasons is because of the sun's rotation around the Earth, moving nearer and farther away

D) seasons is because of Earth's rotation around the sun, moving nearer and farther away

E) seasons is because of the tilt of Earth's axis

E) seasons is because of the tilt of Earth's axis

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4) Which of the following would occur if the Earth's axis tilt were 45 degrees rather than 23.5 degrees?

A) The mid-latitudes would remain cold throughout the year.

B) The northern tier of the contiguous United States would experience winter days during which the sun would not rise above the horizon.

C) Seasons would not occur.

D) The sun would rise in the west and set in the east.

E) The central United States would become more tropical.

B) The northern tier of the contiguous United States would experience winter days during which the sun would not rise above the horizon.

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5) Which of the following would occur if the Earth's axis were not tilted rather than being tilted 23.5 degrees?

A) The mid-latitudes would remain cold throughout the year.

B) The northern tier of the contiguous United States would experience winter days during which the sun would not rise above the horizon.

C) Seasons would not occur.

D) The sun would rise in the west and set in the east.

E) Regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic would experience warmer summers and colder winters.

C) Seasons would not occur.

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1) What gas comprises the largest portion of Earth's atmosphere?

A) oxygen

B) nitrogen

C) sulfur

D) ozone

E) argon

B) nitrogen

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2) The relative humidity is the ________.

A) amount of oxygen in the atmosphere

B) amount of oxygen a given volume of air holds relative to the maximum amount it could hold at a given temperature

C) amount of water vapor in the atmosphere

D) amount of water vapor a given volume of air holds compared to the maximum amount it could hold at a given temperature

E) difference in available water vapor at midnight and at noon

D) amount of water vapor a given volume of air holds compared to the maximum amount it could hold at a given temperature

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3) Which of the following is a secondary air pollutant?

A) nitrogen oxide

B) radon

C) ozone

D) sulfur dioxide

E) carbon monoxide

C) ozone

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4) Seasons are a result of ________.

A) differences in the distance between Earth and the sun

B) differences in the amount and intensity of sunlight brought about by the tilt of Earth's axis

C) alterations in Hadley cells

D) changes in day length

E) the phases of the moon

B) differences in the amount and intensity of sunlight brought about by the tilt of Earth's axis

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5) Near the equator, the patterns of convection currents are called ________.

A) Coriolis cells

B) Hadley cells

C) polar cells

D) El Niño events

E) Ferrel cells

B) Hadley cells

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6) ________ is a device designed to remove airborne pollutants from smokestack emissions.

A) A scrubber

B) An air filter

C) A tall stack

D) A coal washer

E) A boiler

A) A scrubber

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7) The huge dust storms that took place in the United States in the 1930s ________.

A) were triggered by tornados, worsened by global climate change

B) were the result of polar cells

C) were the result of poor farming techniques

D) were the result of glacier melt

E) were the result of ozone depletion

C) were the result of poor farming techniques

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8) Carbon monoxide ________.

A) causes ozone depletion

B) is a major component of the atmosphere

C) blocks oxygen transport in human blood

D) is produced by plants during photosynthesis

E) is consumed by plants for photosynthesis

C) blocks oxygen transport in human blood

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9) Which of the following pollutants has the longest residence time?

A) NO

B) NO2

C) SO2

D) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

E) CO

D) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

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10) Lead pollution is a problem because lead ________.

A) is a precious metal, and it is being lost to the atmosphere

B) will cause the ozone hole to increase

C) causes central nervous system damage in humans

D) can become attached to radon

E) causes excess nutrification of waterways, resulting in eutrophication

C) causes central nervous system damage in humans

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11) ________ is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that may cause lung cancer.

A) Hydrogen sulfide

B) Radon

C) Carbon monoxide

D) Helium

E) Secondhand smoke

B) Radon

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12) Photochemical smog differs from industrial smog in that it ________.

A) is formed only in the presence of sunlight

B) has large quantities of soot

C) is primarily composed of carbon monoxide

D) consists of primary pollutants

E) is an unhealthy mixture of pollutants

A) is formed only in the presence of sunlight

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13) One consequence of CFC pollution is ________.

A) increased rates of skin cancer in humans

B) increased rates of respiratory irritation and lung cancer

C) accelerated damage to human red blood cells

D) the movement of toxins into lakes and rivers, poisoning fish

E) the eutrophication of waterways

A) increased rates of skin cancer in humans

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14) Residence time is the ________.

A) chemical change that occurs with time, when substances are altered by the sun or metabolized by microorganisms

B) length of time a pollutant spends in the environment

C) chemical change that occurs with time, when substances alter the growth and development of humans

D) length of time it takes for chemicals to be stored in the tissues of living organisms

E) length of time it takes to produce toxic chemicals in the environment

B) length of time a pollutant spends in the environment

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15) In industrialized nations, the two most deadly sources of indoor pollution are ________.

A) pesticides and cleaning agents

B) synthetic furniture materials and radiation from electronic equipment

C) radiation from electronic equipment and pesticides

D) radon and cigarette smoke

E) pesticides and cigarette smoke

D) radon and cigarette smoke

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16) Bacteria and fungal spores are potential ________.

A) causes of "sick building syndrome"

B) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

C) sources of radon in the home

D) problems in degrading the ozone layer

E) causes of high pesticide use in the home

A) causes of "sick building syndrome"

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17) Which of the following is a consequence of acid deposition?

A) It increases the likelihood of low-lying ground fogs.

B) It results in offshore eutrophication, damaging coral reefs.

C) It creates rainwater that can damage skin cells or cause cancers.

D) It leaches important minerals from soils.

E) It is increasing the rate of global warming.

D) It leaches important minerals from soils.

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18) The Coriolis effect ________.

A) keeps Earth from spinning too fast

B) is caused by the moon

C) results in seasonal periods of 24-hour darkness at the poles in winter

D) keeps the wind circulating at constant speed around the planet

E) is caused by earth's rotation

E) is caused by earth's rotation

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19) The Coriolis effect contributes to ________.

A) global wind patterns

B) global warming

C) increased acidic deposition

D) a reduction in eutrophication

E) an increase in eutrophication

A) global wind patterns

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20) Half of U.S. emissions of this pollutant is from natural sources such as vegetation.

A) sulfur dioxide

B) nitrogen oxides

C) VOCs

D) carbon monoxide

E) lead

C) VOCs

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21) In 1970, the source of most of the airborne lead emissions in the U.S. was ________.

A) water pipes

B) gasoline

C) paint

D) pencil factories

E) coal-burning power plants

B) gasoline

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22) You have been hired by a rapidly growing small city to improve the air quality, which has deteriorated in the past 10 years. What would be a logical action to take?

A) try to negotiate with the large city downwind whose factories produce large amounts of pollution

B) decrease the amount of CFCs used locally

C) move or close the cattle feedlots located along the nearby river

D) improve transportation options, including carpool lanes, buses, and light rail

E) remove the hydroelectric dam on the nearby river

D) improve transportation options, including carpool lanes, buses, and light rail

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23) Stratospheric ozone is important to ecosystems because it ________.

A) keeps atmospheric gases balanced

B) absorbs and scatters UV light

C) keeps the temperature of Earth stable

D) provides the air we breathe

E) ensures lakes and oceans do not lose water

Answer: B

B) absorbs and scatters UV light

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24) Temperature increases with altitude through most of the stratosphere because ________.

A) heat is released when oxygen and ozone absorb the sun's UV radiation

B) sunlight is more intense in the stratosphere

C) jet stream winds produce frictional heat

D) water vapor levels are high and store heat

E) greenhouse gases warm the air

A) heat is released when oxygen and ozone absorb the sun's UV radiation

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25) The decrease in NOx emissions in the U.S. from 1970 to 2014 can be partially attributed to which of the following?

A) the use of scrubbers in motor vehicles

B) the use of catalytic converters in motor vehicles

C) a decrease in the amount of energy consumed

D) a decrease in vehicle miles traveled

E) a decrease in the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere

B) the use of catalytic converters in motor vehicles

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26) The Montreal Protocol ________.

A) addressed transnational movement of acid-forming pollutants

B) developed the framework for reduction of carbon dioxide in the United States and Canada

C) developed the international treaty for eliminating sulfur emissions from nuclear power plants

D) resulted in significant reduction in the production of CFCs by signatory nations

E) is an example of a failed attempt to reduce international air pollution

D) resulted in significant reduction in the production of CFCs by signatory nations

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27) The Earth's atmosphere is composed mostly of ________.

A) water and carbon dioxide

B) oxygen and carbon dioxide

C) nitrogen and carbon dioxide

D) nitrogen and oxygen

E) water and oxygen

D) nitrogen and oxygen

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28) In the 1970s, sources of CFC pollution in the U.S. included all of the following EXCEPT ________.

A) aerosol spray cans

B) refrigerators

C) air conditioners

D) polystyrene manufacturing plants

E) coal-burning power plants

E) coal-burning power plants

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29) In the U.S., which of the following has decreased since 1980?

A) energy consumption

B) air pollution emissions

C) population

D) vehicle miles traveled

E) gross domestic product (GDP)

B) air pollution emissions

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30) In the U.S., ambient air concentrations of which of the following have declined the most since 1980 compared to its health and safety standard?

A) SO2

B) ozone

C) lead

D) CO

E) NO2

C) lead

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31) Which of the following U.S. cities still experiences over 3 months of unhealthy air per year, with air quality index (AQI) values of greater than 100?

A) Dallas

B) Detroit

C) Chicago

D) Los Angeles

E) New York City

D) Los Angeles

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Thousands of young families moved "over the hills" and into the San Fernando Valley, a suburb of Los Angeles, after World War II. New neighborhoods were springing up, replacing orange groves and open space; roads and schools quickly sprang into existence, trying to keep pace with the rapid population growth. Ringed by beautiful mountains, the entire Los Angeles basin looked like a new, green, sun-filled paradise to the families seeking a fresh start. In the early 1950s, one of the common family chores in Los Angeles was to carry the trash out to the stone incinerator behind the garage where each family burned all of their dry trash. "Wet" garbage was collected and taken to a city dump, where it was burned by the city. Everyone throughout the city either used an incinerator or burned things in an open trash pile; there were over 400,000 backyard trash incinerators. On warm afternoons, eyes would sometimes sting and burn. People would stop, close their eyes, and let the cleansing tears refresh irritated eyes. They accepted this as a normal part of life in sunny California.


1) Part of the reason that people's eyes would sting was ________.

A) the lead emissions from the burning trash

B) the carbon monoxide from the burning trash

C) the smoke and particulates from the burning trash

D) the excess water vapor from the burning trash

E) the plastics and chemicals in the burning trash

C) the smoke and particulates from the burning trash

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2) In the 1950s, Los Angeles became famous for its smog. Which of the following contributed to the smog problem?

A) the increase in the number of automobiles

B) heavy industry along the coastline

C) natural gas leaks from wells

D) pollution from the dams on the Colorado River

E) dust from inland farms

A) the increase in the number of automobiles

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3) One key contributing factor to the Los Angeles smog problem is the fact that ________.

A) the offshore breezes carry inland pollution to coastal Los Angeles

B) the Hadley cell for that area drops cool air, and pollution, right over Los Angeles

C) Los Angeles and its suburbs are all ringed by mountains

D) incoming tides in the harbor push air pollution ahead of them

E) there are so many rainy days, increasing the acidic deposition

C) Los Angeles and its suburbs are all ringed by mountains

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4) The Los Angeles smog problem is made much worse by ________.

A) the foggy climate, which leads to acidic deposition

B) nearby mountains and the warm sunshine, which cause inversion layers

C) convection cells, which bring pollutants from other cities

D) high cloud levels, which deplete the local ozone layer

E) onshore breezes, which prevent pollution from dispersing

B) nearby mountains and the warm sunshine, which cause inversion layers

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5) A combination of events and situations, including Los Angeles' smog problem, led to Congress passing the ________ in 1963. This legislation and its major amendments in 1970 and 1990 fund research into pollution control, set standards for air quality, and encourage emissions standards for automobiles and point sources such as industrial plants. They also impose limits on emissions from new sources, fund a national air quality monitoring system, and enable citizens to sue parties violating the standards.

A) Air Pollution Control Act

B) California Air Act

C) Environmental Protection Act

D) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

E) Clean Air Act

E) Clean Air Act

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