Gov Ch5 Vocab

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bail

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18 Terms

1

bail

money given over to a court in exchange for a criminal suspect's release from jail until his or her trial begins.

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2

capital punishment

the imposition of the death penalty on a person by the state

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3

civil liberties

basic freedoms guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion

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4

civil rights

guarantees of equal rights and equal treatment under the law, such as trial by jury and voting rights

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5

double jeopardy

the prosecution of a person a second time for a crime for which the defendant has already been tried once and found not guilty; prohibited under the Fifth Amendment

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6

Equal Protection Clause

a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment declaring that no state may deny "equal protection of the laws" to any person within that state

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7

incorporation

the process by which the Supreme Court applies the Bill of Rights to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

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8

libel

publishing false information about someone with intent to cause harm

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9

obscenity

speech or other forms of expression considered offensive to conventional standards of decency

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10

prior restraint

an attempt by government to prevent the publication or broadcast of material considered harmful

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11

probable cause

reasonable suspicion of criminal behavior

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12

secular

not religious or spiritual in nature

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13

self-incrimination

statements, usually made under oath, suggesting that the person speaking is guilty of a crime

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14

slander

orally spreading false information about someone with intent to cause harm

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15

symbolic speech

conduct that conveys a message without spoken words

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16

Takings Clause

a clause in the Fifth Amendment that prohibits the government from taking private property for public use "without just compensation"

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17

unenumerated rights

rights not specifically listed in the Bill of Rights but given general protection under the Ninth Amendment

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18

warrant

a document issued by a judge that authorizes law enforcement officers to carry out a search, seizure of evidence, or arrest

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