AP English Language & Composition Ultimate Guide

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90 Terms

1

Style

is the general manner of expression used in a text.

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2

Pathos

is an appeal to the emotions, values, or desires of the audience.

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3

Personification

is the figurative device in which inanimate objects or concepts are given the thoughts, feelings, or actions of a human.

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4

Ethos

is an appeal to the speakers credibility- whether he or she is to be believed on the basis of his or her character and expertise.

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5

Denotation

refers to a words primary or literal significance

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6

connotation

refers to the vast range of other meanings that a word suggests.

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7

Rhetorical strategies

describe how an author uses language to construct a text.

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8

Hyperbole

is overstatement or exaggeration; it is the use of figurative language that significantly exaggerates the facts for effect.

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9

Logos

is an appeal to reason and logic.

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10

Understatement

is figurative language that presents the facts in a way that makes them appear much less significant than they really are.

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11

Mood

describes how the text makes the audience feel.

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12

Tone

describes the speakers attitude toward the subject.

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13

catchy title

is a rhetorical strategy designed to capture the audiences attention.

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14

Sarcasm

is simply verbal irony used with the intent to injure.

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15

Circumlocation

is a form of communication in which the speaker's meaning is not directly expressed but implied, often through metaphors or other forms of figurative language.

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16

euphemism

is a word or words that are used to avoid employing an unpleasant or offensive term.

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17

Verbal irony

refers to the process of stating something but meaning the opposite of what is stated.

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18

Irony

is a figure of speech in which words are used to convey the opposite of their literal meaning.

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19

Situational Irony

refers to a circumstance that runs contrary to what was expected.

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20

Figurative language

is strictly defined as speech or writing that departs from literal meaning to achieve a special effect or meaning.

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21

Satire

something is portrayed in a way thats deliberately distorted to achieve comic effect.

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22

Symbolism

is a concrete object that represents an abstract idea.

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23

Imagery

in figurative language is when an author uses vivid or metaphorical language to create a mental image that helps readers visualize what's being described.

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24

Rhetorical strategies

a broad term, including basic diction and syntax, as well as more complicated uses of figurative language.

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25

Understatement

is almost always used for comic effect.

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26

Syntax

________ in rhetorical strategies refers to the arrangement of words and phrases to achieve a desired effect.

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27

X

This variable represents the specific rhetorical strategies an author uses

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28

Y

This variable refers to how the rhetorical strategies in the text impact the audience

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29

Audience

refers to the individuals the speaker is trying to persuade

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30

Z

This variable represents a texts theme or argument

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31

Simile

A simile is a comparison between two unlike objects, in which the two parts are connected with a term such as like or as

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32

Metaphor

is a simile without a connecting term such as like or as

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33

Extended Metaphor

is precisely what it sounds like-it is a metaphor that lasts for longer than just one phrase or sentence

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34

Symbolism

is a concrete object that represents an abstract idea

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35

Satire

something is portrayed in a way thats deliberately distorted to achieve comic effect

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36

Rhetoric

are talking about language as a means of persuasion

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37

Diction

will ask you to evaluate why an author’s choice of words is particularly effective, apt, or clear.

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38

Context

(and at times, author’s intent) determines which connotations may be appropriate for a word.

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39

author

will carefully pick a particular word for its connotations, knowing or hoping a reader will make an additional inference as a result.

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40

paradox

contains two elements which cannot both be true at the same time (although usually each one could be true on its own).

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41

Mood

describes how the text makes the audience feel.

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42

Rhetorical modes

are ways of using language that are intended to have an effect on the audience.

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43

Analogies

are sometimes used to explain things that are difficult to understand by comparing them with things that are easier to understand.

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44

allegory of the cave

The most famous philosophical analogy serves as the basis for Plato’s

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45

expository writing

Use analogy for

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46

argumentative writing

Do not use analogy for

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47

classification

When you’re asked to analyze and explain something

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48

write

do not justify your classification unless this is somehow necessary to address a very bizarre free-response question.

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49

Quality

is more important than quantity; poorly chosen examples detract significantly from your presentation.

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50

Narration

________ can be an effective expository technique.

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51

Process analysis

________ is a rhetorical mode thats used by writers when they want to explain either how to do something or how something was done.

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52

Deduction

________ is the process of applying a generalization to a specific case.

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53

Sequence

________ is chronological and usually fixed- think of recipes.

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54

Induction

________ is a process in which specific examples are used to reach a general conclusion.

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pieces of information

A narrative is a story in which ________ are arranged in chronological order.

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56

Description

________ can help make expository or argumentative writing lively and interesting and hold the readers interest, which is vital, of course.

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57

Process analysis

________ can be an effective way of relating an experience.

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58

Deduction

________ involves the use of a generalization to draw a conclusion about a specific case.

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59

Do not confuse the relating of mere circumstances with a cause-and

effect relationship

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60

When possible, call on all five senses

visual, auditory, olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), and tactile

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61

Make your story complete

make sure you have a beginning, middle, and end

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62

Process analysis

is a rhetorical mode that’s used by writers when they want to explain either how to do something or how something was done.

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63

Sequence

is chronological and usually fixed—think of recipes.

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64

Cause and effect

explains the processes responsible for the process.

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65

Description

can help make expository or argumentative writing lively and interesting and hold the reader’s interest, which is vital, of course.

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66

narrative

is a story in which pieces of information are arranged in chronological order.

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67

Narration

can be an effective expository technique.

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68

Induction

is a process in which specific examples are used to reach a general conclusion.

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69

Deduction

involves the use of a generalization to draw a conclusion about a specific case.

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70

rhetorical fallacy

is basically faulty reasoning leading to a conclusion the advertiser, author, or speaker wants you to make.

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71

Emphasizing the Person

the evidence focuses on the person who supports a conclusion, not on the merits of the conclusion itself.

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72

Ad Populum or “bandwagon”

A certain political candidate is ahead in the polls.

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73

Argument from Authority

This rhetorical fallacy focuses solely on the credentials or fame of the person recommending the product, without saying anything about the product itself.

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74

Ad Hominem

This rhetorical fallacy turns to the other side of the coin and points out negative characteristics of the person who promotes an idea or action.

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75

Dogmatism

The conclusion must be correct because the author or speaker says it is and she can’t possibly be wrong.

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76

Equivocation

This type of fallacy leaves out facts that a reader or listener would need in order to make a thorough assessment of the conclusion.

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77

Sentimental Appeals

Charities often use this tactic when they ask for donations.

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78

Slippery Slope

According to this rhetorical fallacy, if you eat at a fast-food takeout once, pretty soon you’ll never want to eat healthy, nourishing home-cooked meals again.

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79

Scare Tactics

Here the speaker or author is trying to frighten you into agreeing with him.

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80

Red Herring

Instead of addressing the key issues of an opposing argument, a red herring fallacy focuses attention on an insignificant or irrelevant factor.

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81

Straw Man

The writer creates a straw man—something that’s easy to knock down and tear apart—as the opposing viewpoint.

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82

Faulty analogy

One thing is compared with a second thing, but the comparison is exaggerated or misleading or unreasonable.

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83

Faulty causality

(also called Post hoc ergo propter hoc): This type of fallacy assumes that because one event happened shortly before another, the first event must have caused the second.

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84

Begging the Question

In this rhetorical fallacy, an assumption which is not proven is used as evidence that the conclusion is correct.

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85

Circular Argument

This fallacy says essentially the same thing in both the conclusion and in the evidence that allegedly supports it.

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86

Missing the point

The author offers evidence that supports a conclusion—it’s just not the same conclusion that the author reaches.

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87

Non Sequitur

This Latin term means, “it doesn’t follow.”

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88

False Dichotomy

This rhetorical fallacy assumes a black-and-white world in which there is no middle ground, no other alternative.

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89

Hasty Generalization

Here the author or speaker assumes that a limited experience foreshadows the entire experience.

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90

Non-testable hypothesis

In this rhetorical fallacy, anything that has not been proven false is assumed to be true; the author doesn’t need to prove it’s true.

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