Enlightenment / Great Awakening

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Thomas Hobbes

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21 Terms

1

Thomas Hobbes

-pre-enlightenment thinker -wrote Leviathan to demonstrate top-down rule -subjective good vs evil

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2

Isaac Newton

-claimed humans were capable of making observations and influencing the world without a deity -wrote Principia Mathematica (1687) -sets up enlightenment ideas

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3

Enlightenment

European movement from 1700-1800(ish) that emphasized rational reasoning in response to people like the Puritans; also known as the New Age of Reason

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4

Immanuel Kant

-"the enlightenment is the awakening from our self-incurred immaturity" -due to phenomenons the "das ding an sich" was not observable by humans

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5

phenomenon

an idea made by Immanuel Kant that claims that everyone's perception is subjective, so only the object itself is the objective object

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6

John Locke

-wrote "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690) -natural rights: life, liberty, property -tabula rasa idea stems from Empiricism -two-way social contract

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7

Empiricism

a school of thought (area of philosophy) that states that our knowledge comes from experiences

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8

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-"man is born free but everywhere he is in chains" -unnatural vs natural restrictions -direct or pure democracy -wrote Discourse on Inequality (1754) and Social Contract

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9

unnatural restrictions

societal rules and conditions that affect the way people live

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10

James Madison

argued for representative democracy to prevent factions -wrote Federalist No. 10

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11

Deism

theological rationalism that believes in a god on the basis of reason -if creation, then creator -duty to care for the earth and everything on it using god-given rationality

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12

Thomas Paine

-wrote the essay "Of the Religion of Deism Compared with the Christian Religion" (1791); Common Sense; The American Crisis; The Age of Reason -strong rationalist

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13

Adam Smith

vouched for capitalism and the invisible hand of markets

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14

invisible hand

human pursuit of self-interest increases production and promotes general well-being

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15

Benjamin Franklin

"self-made man" who focused on moral perfectionism through logical attempts -wrote The Autobiography and Poor Richard's Almanack

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16

Thomas Jefferson

drew on Enlightenment ideas from Locke and Rousseau to write the Declaration of Independence

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17

Great Awakening

American movement mid-1700 emphasizing faith through emotional teaching; in response to Enlightenment decreasing Church numbers; also known as the New Age of Faith

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18

Great Awakening geological movement

started in the North with itinerant preachers, then moved through the colonies south, took root and never left

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19

William Tennent & family

concerned about the great turning away from faith, they create a log college (Princeton) to educate their ministers for the Presbyterian Church -beginning of Great Awakening with tent revivals

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20

Jonathan Edwards

gave "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" speech in which he used imagery to scare people away from rationality and into Christianity -focused on wrathful aspects of god

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21

Johnathan Whitefield

a famous itinerant preacher who gave emotional sermons across the colonies, focusing on the positive aspects of god

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