Essential Supreme Court Cases US History

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Marbury v. Madison

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Supreme Court Cases for the NYS Regents Exam

34 Terms

1

Marbury v. Madison

Year : 1803

Constitutional Principle : Separation of Powers, The Judiciary

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2

Why is Marbury v. Madison important?

  • Established Judicial Review

  • Strengthened Judicial Branch

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3

McCullough v. Maryland

Year : 1819

Constitutional Principle : Federalism, National Power (Supremacy)

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4

Why is McCullough v. Maryland important?

  • Supports the “elastic clause” to expand Federal Power

  • Establish “National Supremacy”

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5

Gibbons v. Ogden

Year : 1824

Constitutional Principle : Federalism, Property Rights

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6

Why is Gibbons v. Ogden important?

  • Strengthens Congress’ power to regulate interstate commerce

  • National Supremacy

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7

Worcester v. Georgia

Year : 1832

Constitutional Principle : Federalism, National Power, Separation of Power

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8

Why is Worcester v. Georgia important?

  • US Government treaties are the supreme law

  • US government has jurisdiction over Cherokees

  • Jackson did not enforce (Trail of Tears)

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9

Scott v. Sanford

Year : 1857

Constitutional Principle : Equality

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10

Why is Scott v. Sanford important?

  • Slaves were not citizens but property, and slaves could be taken anywhere

  • Declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

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11

Plessy v. Ferguson

Year : 1896

Constitutional Principle : Equality, Rights of Minorities, 14th Amendment

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12

Why is Plessy v. Ferguson important?

  • Justified segregation; separate facilities were legal if they were equal

  • Overturned by Brown v. Board of Education

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13

Munn v. Illinois

Year : 1877

Constitutional Principle : Property Rights

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14

Why is Munn v. Illinois important?

  • Allowed states to regulate businesses in the public interest (in this case states could regulate what RR’s charged farmers to haul crops because crops were necessary to the people)

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15

Schenck v. United States

Year : 1919

Constitutional Principle : Civil Liberties

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16

Why is Schenck v. United States important?

  • Limits freedom of speech

  • “Clear and present danger” standard to limit speech

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17

Korematsu v. United States

Year : 1944

Constitutional Principle : Civil Liberties, Minority Rights

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18

Why is Korematsu v. United States important?

  • Ruled that forced relocation of Japanese Americans to camps during WWII was legal

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19

Brown v. Board of Education

Year : 1954

Constitutional Principle : Equality, Minority Rights, 14th Amendment

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20

Why is Brown v. Board of Education important?

  • Segregation creates inequality and is illegal

  • Overturn Plessy v. Ferguson

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21

Engle v. Vitale

Year : 1962

Constitutional Principle : School Prayer, 1st Amendment establishment

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22

Why is Engle v. Vitale important?

  • Court ruled that prayer in school, even voluntary, is unconstitutional

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23

Gideon v. Wainwright

Year : 1963

Constitutional Principle : Civil Liberties, 6th and 14th amendments

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24

Why is Gideon v. Wainwright important?

  • It is a constitutional right to provide legal representation to those who cannot afford it

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25

Miranda v. Arizona

Year : 1966

Constitutional Principle : Criminal Procedures, Civil Liberties, 5th and 14th amendments

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26

Why is Miranda v. Arizona important?

  • Established the right to remain silent and recieve legal representation before they said something that could be used in court

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27

Loving v. Virginia

Year : 1967

Constitutional Principle : 14th amendment equal protection

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28

Why is Loving v. Virginia important?

  • Supreme court struck down state restriction on inter-racial marriages

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29

Tinker v. Des Moines School District

Year : 1969

Constitutional Principle : Civil Liberties, 1st Amendment

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30

Why is Tinker v. Des Moines important?

  • Non-verbal communication (symbols) is protected under the 1st amendment

  • The “school-house gate” cannot limit freedom

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31

Roe v. Wade

Year : 1973

Constitutional Principle : Civil Liberties

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32

Why is Roe v. Wade important?

  • Ruled that state laws that criminalized abortion were unconstitutional

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33

New Jersey v. TLO

Year : 1985

Constitutional Principle : Search and seizure, 4th amendment

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34

Why is New Jersey v. TLO important?

  • Court ruled that schools need only reasonable suspicion to search a student’s belongings

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