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ribs ossification centeres

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ribs ossification centeres

POC: rib body SOC: head and tubercle

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rib fusion times

-appear in the teens -fuse in early adulthood

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Costal demifacet

articulation point between rib head and vertebral body

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costal facet of transverse process

articulation point of rib tubercle with transverse process of vertebrae

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sternocostal joints

synovial joint between sternum and costal cartilage

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costochondral joints

cartilaginous (immobile) joints between rib and costal cartilage

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True ribs

ribs 1-7

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false ribs

ribs 8-10

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floating ribs

ribs 11 & 12

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Hyoid ossification

endochondral from greater horns (1st), body (1 or 2 centers) and lesser horns (last)

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stylohyoid ligaments

suspend hyoid from styloid process of temporal bone to lesser horns

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thyrohyoid membrane

membrane of larynx connecting to hyoid

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hyoepiglottic ligaments

attachment of epiglottis to body and greater horns

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function of hyoid

muscle and ligament attachment site, speaking

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Clavicle ossification

intramembranous from POC: shaft and SOC medial epiphyses

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Clavicle fusion times

SOCs appear by 18-20 and fuse around 25

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Acromioclavicular joint

synovial joint where the acromial end of the clavicle articulates with the scapula

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sternoclavicular joint

synovial joint where sternal end of the clavicle articulates with the sternum

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Scapula ossification

endochondral from POC: scapular blade and SOCs(7): coracoid process, inferior aspect of glenoid fossa, inferior angle, vertebral border, and acromion process

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(scapular) coracoid processes and inferior aspect of glenoid fossa fusion times

16-18 years

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(scapular) inferior angle and vertebral border fusion times

19-23 years

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scapular acromion process fusion time

18-20 years

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subscapular basin muscle

subscapularis muscle

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supraspinous fossa muscle

supraspinatus muscle

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infraspinous fossa muscle

infraspinatus muscle

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Carpal #

8

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Metacarpal #

5

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manual phalanges #

14

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carpal ossification

endochrondral oss, single center per carpal

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arm bone articulations with carpals

radius articulates with the scaphoid and lunate, the ulna DOES NOT articulate with ANY carpals

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palmar

anterior, palm surface

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dorsal

posterior, back of hand

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ulnar

medial

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radial

lateral

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Metacarpal ossification

endochondral from POC: shafts and SOC: distal end MC 2-5; MC1 SOC is the proximal end

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MC1 ossification

SOC is at the proximal end for the head

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Manual phalanges ossification

distal phalanges have one OC each, intermediate and proximal have one POC for the shaft and a SOC for the proximal base

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femur ossification

endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs (4) femoral head, greater and lesser trochanters, and distal epiphysis

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femoral head fusion time

12-19

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greater trochanter fusion time

14-18

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lesser trochanter fusion time

16-17

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femoral distal epiphysis fusion time

14-20

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Fovea capitis attachment

ligamentum teres

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lesser trochanter attachment

iliopsoas

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gluteal tuberosity attachment

gluteus maximus

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linea aspea attachment

adductors of the hip

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patella ossification

endochondral ossification from 1 POC that appears at 3-6 years

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Tibia ossification

endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs: proximal epiphysis, tibial tuberosity, and distal epiphysis

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tibial proximal epiphysis fusion

13-19 years

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tibial tuberosity fusion

12-14 years

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tibial distal epiphysis fusion

14-20 years

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tibial tuberosity attachment

quadriceps femoris

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soleal (popliteal) line attachment

soleus muscle

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fibula ossification

endochondral from POC: diaphysis and SOCs: proximal and distal epiphyses

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fibular proximal epiphysis fusion

12-20 years

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fibular distal epiphysis fusion

12-18 years

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Tarsal #

7

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metatarsal #

5

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pedal phalanges #

14

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plantar

bottom of foot

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dorsal

top of foot

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Transverse arch

runs across top of foot

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Longitudinal arch

heel-to-toe arch along bottom of foot

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Tarsal ossification

endochondral, one center for each tarsal EXCEPT calcaneous

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calcaneous ossification

has SOC: calcaneal tuberosity that fuses to the calcaneous at 15-20 years

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metatarsal ossification

endochondral; all POCs are the shaft; MT 2-5 have SOC at the distal end for the head and MT1 has SOC at the proximal end for the head

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MT1 ossification

SOC is at the proximal end

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Plexiform bone

a non-Haversion system of bone organization in non-humans that looks like bricks and consists of lamellar bone sandwiched by nonlamellar bone

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Osteon banding

When osteons are arranged in straight lines or bands, only seen in nonhumans

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characteristics of human bone

primary or secondary lamellar bone and Haversion systems

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Steps of bone growth and repair

  1. Woven bone

  2. Primary bone

  3. Secondary bone

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characteristics of woven bone formation

forms quickly, is very poorly organized and is fuzzy looking

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characteristics of primary bone formation

laid down on top of woven bone, beginning of sheets called lamellae form, and primary osteons are present without full Haversion systems

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Secondary bone formation characteristics

the result of resorption of primary bone, composed of secondary osteons and complete Haversion systems

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Woven bone

not arranged in lamellar sheets, small and randomly arranged type 1 collagen fibers that rapidly mineralize making this bone more mineralized than lamellar bone, and it is formed in a lattice structures with lots of large pores

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bone remodeling

formation of secondary osteons that replaces and repairs old/injured bone. osteoblasts and blasts work together

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bone modeling

formation of bone during developmental years that increases length and/or width of bone in the form of primary osteons. This only occurs on preexisting woven bone or cartilage and blasts and blasts work independently of each other

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bone remodeling steps

  1. Activation: osteocytes trigger osteoclastic condensation

  2. Resorption: osteoclastic activity gets rid of old/damaged bone

  3. Reversal: switch from osteoclastic to osteoblastic activity where the border is cleaned and collagen removed

  4. Formation/mineralization: osteoblasts secrete osteoid which is laid down as secondary lamellar bone and is then mineralized.

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primary lamellar bone

parallel laminar sheets that are dense with very few vascular canals and lacking full Haversion systems

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Primary osteons

seen in primary lamellar bone, formed by infilling of large vascular changes that lack well-defined boundary. They are very small and oval shaped

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Secondary Lamellar bone

bone laid down during remodeling composed of secondary osteons with complete Haversian Systems (cortical)

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BSU

basic structural units, osteon with Haversian system

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Cement Line

point on secondary osteons where osteoclastic resorption stops and bone formation begins, controls fatigue and fracture process by absorbing shock

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Interstitial bone

traces of old primary bone that is preexisting but not yet remodeled, present in straight sheets of lamellae

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Odontoclasts

cells that help absorb the roots of deciduous teeth

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predentin

newly formed dentin before being fully mineralized

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initial enamel matrix

initial deposition of enamel before mineralization that is only 30% mineral weight of normal 96% mineralized enamel

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external enamel microstructures

perikymata

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internal enamel microstructures

prisms, striae of rhetzius and cross-striations

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perikymata

transverse horizontal ridges and grooms on the surface of tooth enamel that represent the intersection of striae

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perikymata biorhythm

weekly

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perikymata periodicities

cuspal enamel widest lines, followed by mid crown with the thinnest lines being in the cervical area

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Prisms

bundles of crystallites that make horizontal rows of deposition -full road made up of individual cross striation bricks

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cross striations

regular cross banding that represents daily deposition by ameloblasts; -bricks that make up prism road

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striae of rhetzius

darkened, thicker lines that cut across enamel prisms on a larger scale and reflect weekly biorhythm -horizontal lines painted across the brick road -terminate at the surface as perikymata

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dentin microstructures

dentin tubules, Von-Ebner lines, and Andersen lines

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dentin tubules

fluid filled channels that contact nerves and provide sensory function

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Von Ebner lines

daily secretions by odontoblasts comparable to cross striations

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Andersen lines

6-10 days of secretions by odontoblasts comparable to striae of rhetzius

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cementum

collagen rich, mostly acellular matrix laid down annually by cementoblasts. They do not continually remodel like bone, it just gets thicker and thicker to keep the tooth in the socket

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