AP Psychology Unit 1

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74 Terms
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structuralism

early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

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introspection

the process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one's own psychological processes

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functionalism

early school of thought promoted by William James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

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humanistic psychology

a historically significant perspective that emphasizes human growth potential

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cognitive psychology

the study of the mind and mental processes, such as when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems

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psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

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nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

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biological psychology

the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.

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psychodynamic psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

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social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

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psychometrics

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits. Focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data. May revise old intelligence, personality and aptitude tests and devise new ones. May assist researchers to design experiments or interpret their results.

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developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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educational psychology

the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

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personality psychology

the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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human factors psychology (engineering psychologists)

a field of study allied with I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

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community psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups; goal of preventing disorders

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hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (a/k/a the I-knew-it-all-along-phenomenon)

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theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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hypothesis

A testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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operational definition

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. *used for both dependent variable(s) and independent variable(s) so experiment can be replicated

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replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced

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case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles *used for rare disorders or conditions or where experiment would be unethical

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naturalistic observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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survey

a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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sampling bias

a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample; leads to problems with generalizability

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population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

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random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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correlation

A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. *Useful in making predictions

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correlational coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1.00 to +1.00) Shows DIRECTION and STRENGTH of the relationship

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variable

anything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure

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scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)

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illusory correlation

perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual-relationship

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experiment

A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). Random assignment of participants aims to control other relevant factors

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Experimental Group

in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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Control Group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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Random Assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups

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double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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positive correlation

A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.

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negative correlation

A correlation where as one variable increases, the other decreases. Variables move in opposite directions.

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independent variable

in an experiment, the factor that is MANIPULATED; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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confounding variable

a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study's results; Being unaware of or failing to control for this may cause the researcher to analyze the results incorrectly. Also known as: Third Variable Problem; Hidden Variable; Lurking Variable

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informed consent

giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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descriptive statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and measures of variation (range, standard deviation).

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mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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mean

the arithmetic AVERAGE of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

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positively skewed distribution

Test was too hard! Mode and Median are less than the Mean

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negatively skewed distribution

Test was too easy! Mode and Median are greater than the Mean

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skewed distribution

a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

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range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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normal distribution (normal curve/bell curve)

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68% fall within 1 standard deviation) and fewer and fewer near the extremes

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inferential statistics

numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

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statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. Results are due to the IV and not due to chance

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single-blind procedure

research design in which participants don't know whether they are in the experimental or control group. reduces the effect of demand characteristics

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meta-analysis

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

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representative sample

A sample that reflects the demographic characteristics of the population from which it is drawn

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Hawthorne effect

A change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied

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Institutional Review Board (IRB)

A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology

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no coercion

participation should be voluntary

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anonymity/confidentiality

Participants privacy must be protected.

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No Physical or Emotional Harm

participants cannot be placed at significant mental or physical risk

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dependent variable

in an experiment, the outcome that is MEASURED; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.

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Overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

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control condition

the condition that the control group of participants receives

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generalizabilty (external validity)

low= narrow conditions for sample section do not reflect target population= very small sample or not selected randomly . high= representative of target population= distribution of tie since diagnosis that is similar to the population of all patients

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distribution of data

The spread of a data set as described by measures or descriptors

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