COMPSCI 1210 ( COMP ORG)

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UNIT 1 - SYSTEM CONCEPT

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Unit I - System Concept

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UNIT 1 - SYSTEM CONCEPT

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is a system that uses information technology (IT).

INFORMATION SYSTEM

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The ____provides services using a computer, and a computer operates with a combination of hardware and software.

INFORMATION SYSTEM

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an INFORMATION SYSTEM used inside an enterprise, or provided as a service to users, requires the design and construction of IT infrastructures, such as)___ and ___ design and development.

hardware & software

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___ designs the software components and operations, such as the connection of the software components and constraints based on software architecture.

Software

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Just like software, ___designs and develops the hardware architecture.

hardware

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refers to the architecture for a system to provide services, based on hardware and software architecture.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

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In a broader definition, it refers to all architecture,

including the _, _, _,

for constructing an information system.

  • application architecture (AA)

  • data architecture (DA)

  • technical architecture (TA)

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A narrow definition refers to the document that defines the ___ of hardware, such as a______ , ___, ___and , and certain software parts, such as ___ and ___

  • configuration and relationship

  • server, storage, network, and security

  • Os and middleware

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A ____ is a document that defines the structure of an information system provided to support the business process required to achieve the objective of an enterprise.

system architecture

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A system architecture is divided into _, , -

  • application architecture (AA)

  • data architecture (DA)

  • technical architecture (TA)

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it defines the structure of hardware, such as a server, network, and security, as well as the distributed structure of middleware operating on the hardware,

  • technical architecture (TA)

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it defines the data structure to assure data integrity,

  • data architecture (DA)

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it defines the software components and the relationship and constraints of said defined components.

  • application architecture (AA)

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Narrow definition of

A ____ refers to the structure of an information system, which includes principles and guidelines that define the components, such as hardware, software, security, interactions, and constraints.

system architecture

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The following table shows the types of detailed architecture defined in system architecture. ( click to see)

  • Server design Architecture

  • Network Design Architecture

  • storage design architecture

<ul><li><p>Server design Architecture</p></li><li><p>Network Design Architecture</p></li><li><p>storage design architecture</p></li></ul>
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What are the Components of System Architecture

  • Server

  • Network

  • Storage

  • Security

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  • It provides the computing power of an information system. The information system uses this computing power to process the business logic and data by running the application programs.

  • its components include the stacked structures of the computer's hardware, OS, middleware, and application programs.

Server

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  • it connects the information system components for communication.

  • process communication between servers, between servers and storage units, and between the enterprise's internal and external networks.

Network

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  • holds the data of an information system.

    The information system uses this computing Power to process the business logic and data by running the application programs.

Storage

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Storage is categorized into 4 types according to how it stores data.

  • Block storage

  • File storage

  • Object storage

  • Direct Access Storage (DAS)

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saves data in fixed block units, like 16KB and 64KB. It stores the OS, such as MS Windows, Linux, and Unix.

  • Block storage

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saves data in file units, instead of in fixed blocks. Network Attached Storage (NAS), widely used as the shared file repository, is a type of file storage.

  • File storage

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saves data in object units, instead of in fixed blocks or files. It is mostly used in cloud storage. Storage types can also be categorized by their connection method.

  • Object storage

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__is mounted in each server, NAS is connected through a network, and Storage Area Network (SAN) is connected through the network used exclusively for storage.

  • Direct Access Storage (DAS)

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configured through the network connection.

  • Security

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System architecture classification according to the system layout

  • Centralized architecture

  • Multi-region

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  • arranges all the systems in a centralized place.

  • stores and operates the system and data from an integrated center. It configures an integrated database on a large-capacity server and it has a relatively simple system configuration.

  • Centralized architecture

<ul><li><p>Centralized architecture</p></li></ul>
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  • distributed architecture operates the system by distributing regional and application systems regionally.

  • Each region manages the distributed data using small or medium-sized servers. This structure can reduce the load of each server, since it distributes the user load.

Multi-region distributed system architecture

<p>Multi-region distributed system architecture</p>
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Classification according to how the application programs are provided

  • Client-server architecture

  • Web system architecture

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The architecture places system functions in the servers and clients and configures them to use the service, depending on the business size or environment.

Client-server architecture

<p>Client-server architecture</p>
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  • The architecture runs the server's application programs, and the client uses the service with a web browser. It generally consists of a web server, a web application server, and a database server.

  • The ___assures stable performance, and the program reusability is high.

  • Web system architecture

  • middleware

<ul><li><p>Web system architecture</p></li><li><p>middleware</p></li></ul>
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Classification by system layer

  • Two-tier architecture

  • Three-tier architecture

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The function and role of each system component are classified by __ or ____

tier, or layer

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The most widely known layer is the___ which shows the network structure.

OSI 7 layer,

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difference of layer and tier

  • layers refer to structures from a logical point of view

  • and tiers refer to structures from a physical perspective.

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An information system is divided into a___

  • presentation layer

  • a business logic layer

  • data layer

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different layer in Information System

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  • stores and processes data in the server and processes business logic and presentation for the client.

  • It is generally the same structure as the client-server architecture.

Two-tier architecture

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  • a structure created to overcome the limitations of two-tier architecture,

  • and it is also called multi-tier architecture.

  • This structure has an additional tier between the presentation tier and the data tier, in order toprocess business logic to be flexible and scalable.

Three-tier architecture

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__refers to a computer or program that provides information or services to users through a network. It provides the computer power needed for the information system services.

“Server”

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The concept of the server was created when __ started making a server called the mainframe.

IBM

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  • The term ___ refers to a large steel enclosure, like a cabinet, that houses the CPU and the main memory.

mainframe

<p>mainframe</p>
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The mainframe began downsizing gradually in __when the attention to super Unix servers, such as HP. Sun, and Silicon Graphics, increased.

  • 1997

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Downsizing refers to replacing a mainframe server with a ___

super Unix server.

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regarded as the beginning of modern computers.

Turing Machine,

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Who and When Turing Machine Invented

Allen Turing in 1936,

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This Turing Machine proved the ___

mathematical concepts and calculation processes

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known as the first programmable general-purpose computer. Using 18,000 vacuum tubes, it weighed 30 tons and was literally as large as a house. And it was create in__

ENIAC, created in 1946,

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the first computer that embedded the program in a memory unit, it was proposed by and developed in

EDSAC.

John von Neumann in 1949

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Unit II - Network Concept

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a standardized communication rule for sending and receiving data through a network.

PROTOCOL

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responsible for most Internet-related standard protocols.

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

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responsible for wireless communication protocols such as GSM, CDMA, UMTS, LTE, and LTE-A.

3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) and 3GPP2

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responsible for protocols related to telephones.

ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector)

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commonly referred to when dealing with networks.

ISO's OSI reference model, or OSI layer

<p>ISO&apos;s OSI reference model, or OSI layer</p>
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ISO is derived from the Greek word “__”?

ioo¢ (isos)

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ISO is derived from the Greek word “ioo¢ (isos)’, meaning “__”,

identical

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IOS stands for?

International Organization for Standardization (IOS).

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OSI is an abbreviation of?

Open Systems Interconnection.

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The Internet protocol layer is based on the?

ARPANET reference model,

<p>ARPANET reference model,</p>
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OSI Reference Model layers

  1. Application layer

  2. Presentation layer

  3. Session layer

  4. Transport layer

  5. Network layer

  6. Data link layer

  7. Physical layer

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Application programs, such as web (HTTP), DNS, telnet, FTP, and email sending/receiving (SMTP/POP3/IMAP4), allow access to services on other layers.

APPLICATION LAYER

<p>APPLICATION LAYER</p>
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  • Also called the host-to-host transport layer,

  • It is equivalent to the transport layer in the OSI reference layer.

TRANSPORT LAYER

<p>TRANSPORT LAYER</p>
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  • Also called the network layer, it is responsible for addressing and routing functions.

  • It is equivalent to the network layer in the OSI reference layer.

INTERNET LAYER

<p>INTERNET LAYER</p>
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Also called the network access layer,

the network interface layer has the role of actually sending and receiving TCP/IP packets through physical media, such as IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.11 WIFI.

NETWORK INTERFACE LAYER

<p>NETWORK INTERFACE LAYER</p>
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Internet users come across many terms related to numbers, such as a MAC address, an IP address, and a port number.

Internet Address System

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the address system used by the data link layer, is used to transfer frames between the physically connected nodes.

MAC (MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL)

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  • the address system of the network layer to transfer datagram between two hosts/ routers.

  • It facilitates data to be transferred from the source node to the destination node, through multiple Internet networks.

INTERNET PROTOCOL

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transfer messages between two processes (running applications) is responsible for the connection between the web browser

PORT NUMBER

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  • is a leading organization responsible for Internet-related standards.

  • It defines the basic protocols for Internet transmissions,

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

<p>IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)</p>
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Unit III – Operating System

A. Operating System (OS)

B. Process and Thread

C. Process Synchronization and Deadlock

D. Memory Unit Management

E. Scheduling

F. Virtual Memory Unit

G. File System

H. Input/ Output System

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B. Process and Thread

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refers to a running program, and in today’s concurrent multi-process environment, it is a work unit of a time-sharing system.

A process

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A process has a distinct process status during its lifecycle

Process status

  • Created: A process is created but is not running by the OS.

  • Preparing: The process is waiting for the CPU allocation to run.

  • Running: The process has the CPU allocation.

  • Finished: The process has completed its running, and the CPU allocation is released.

  • Standby: The process ran after getting the CPU allocation, and is waiting for an event, such as the completion of input or output.

<p>Process status</p><ul><li><p><strong>Created:</strong> A process is created but is not running by the OS.</p></li><li><p><strong>Preparing</strong>: The process is waiting for the CPU allocation to run.</p></li><li><p><strong>Running:</strong> The process has the CPU allocation.</p></li><li><p><strong>Finished</strong>: The process has completed its running, and the CPU allocation is released.</p></li><li><p><strong>Standby:</strong> The process ran after getting the CPU allocation, and is waiting for an event, such as the completion of input or output.</p></li></ul>
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stores information necessary for process management.

Process control block (PCB)

<p>Process control block (PCB)</p>
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The process that creates other processes

parent process,

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newly created process is called

child process.

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A child process can create another child process, and this relationship is formed in a___?

tree structure,

<p>tree structure,</p>
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After completing the last code of the program, the process requests the OS to delete the process with the "exit()" system cal,

Process termination

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  • a basic unit for using a CPU

  • shares the memory unit, such as codes, data, and files, and creates its own register and stack.

thread

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thread is a basic unit for using a CPU and is al called a?

lightweight process.

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a case in which a thread exists for a process, and a process,

single-thread process

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  • having multiple threads, is called a

multi-threaded process.

<p>multi-threaded process.</p>
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C. Process Synchronization and Deadlock

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refers to two or more parallel processes simultaneously accessing and changing the same data, or the order of manipulating the data affecting the execution result.

race condition

<p>race condition</p>
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The part of the code that implements such a request is called the

entry section

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The exit section is after the critical section, and the rest of the code is collectively called the

remainder section

<p>remainder section</p>
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  • the hardware method is not feasible, since it deteriorates the system efficiency in a multiprocessor environment.

  • Another way is to use a__ which is a synchronization tool.

semaphore

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The semaphore, ’S’, is an integer variable, and only the___operation (wait) and__operation (signal) are enabled.

P and V

<p>P  and   V</p>
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There may be a case when the status of a process in “standby” is never changed because the requested resource is allocated to other standby processes. This state is called the __

deadlock.

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___ cannot finish the running program, and the system cannot start other tasks because the resource is tied to other processes.

deadlocked processes

<p>deadlocked processes</p>
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D. Memory Unit Management

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  • technique of running processes, even if they are not present in the memory unit.

  • This technique allows a user program that is larger than the physical memory unit to run.

Virtual memory

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technique of searching for the best way to allocate processes to the available main memory area when a process requests the memory unit for a new use.

Memory unit allocation technique

<p>Memory unit allocation technique</p>
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Memory space is allocated when the memory is requested and recollected after use.

Fragmentation problem

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Using the first-fit, best-fit, and worst- fit techniques to allocate the memory unit can cause __,

external fragmentation

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  • __If the memory is partitioned into a fixed size to provide multiple fixed-sized available spaces to processes, it may be slightly larger than the required space.

  • The remaining space is called the ___

  • Fragmentation problem

  • internal fragmentation

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merges small-sized available memory,

Compaction technique

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merges spaces with adjacent addresses in the unused empty space list in order to create a larger space and to prevent multiple small spaces

Coalescing technique

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