Applied Neuro Exam 1

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Differentiate motor learning and motor control

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Differentiate motor learning and motor control

motor learning - acquisition/modification of movement motor control - ability to direct movement

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Define skill

ability to consistently achieve goals under a wide variety of conditions

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Differentiate a discrete, serial, and continuous movement?

discrete - beginning and end serial - discrete linked together (order matters) continuous - no distinct beginning and end (ex: gait)

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Differentiate between closed skill versus and open skill

closed - predictable, not varied, can plan in advance, no change in environment

open - unpredictable, adapt movements in response to environment

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What are some of the primary effector systems to the movement system?

musculoskeletal, nervous

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What are some support systems to the movement system? (3)

cardiopulmonary, metabolic, integumentary

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Movement emerges from what three things?

the individual, task, and environment

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New solutions in specific tasks given the new constraints imposed on the individual (associated with the neural pathology)

recovery of function

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What is the difference between performance and learning?

performance is a temporary change seen during a practice session

learning - result from the experience of practice that is more permanent, tested outside of practice

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What is the cognitive, associative, and autonomous phases of motor learning?

cognitive - understanding what to do associative - understanding how to do autonomous - doing it well

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Motor program theory where we have a set of rules for spatial-temporal patterns for a type of movement (ex: waving)

Schmidt's Schema Theory

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What is explicit versus implicit motor learning? What types of memory does each encompass

explicit = declarative memory, verbal knowledge of movement

implicit = procedural memory, improvement in physical performance of the movement

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Which type of memory is understanding how to do something and requires effortful process?

declarative

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What type of memory is how to do something and requires doesn't require conscious attention

procedural

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Knowing the phases of the gait cycle versus knowing how to walk are what types of memories?

gait cycle phases - declarative

knowing how to walk - procedural

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what are the three critical brain areas for procedural memory?

cerebellum, basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex

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What is the role of the cerebellum?

use sensory feedback to adjust motor output for procedural learning

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Which part of the brain is responsible for changing movement or direction? (voluntary movement initiation)

basal ganglia

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What is the responsibility of the basal ganglia?

coordinates movement response selection

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Unilateral basal ganglia stroke had what effect on procedural learning? What about ability to benefit from declarative instructions?

slowed procedural learning, reduced ability to learn from declarative instructions

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What can we use to drive motor learning when explicit learning systems are damaged?

sensorimotor cortex

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Which system is active when explicit knowledge is unavailable and learning is implicit or internally driven?

sensorimotor cortex

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What four areas of the brain drive declarative learning?

hippocampus, amygdala, medial temporal cortex, and prefrontal/premotor cortices

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What is role of hippocampus and medial temporal cortex?

help form declarative memory

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Which system allows declarative learning to be held in working memory and used to guide motor performance?

prefrontal cortex

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Damage to prefrontal and premotor cortex has what impact?

decreased ability to integrate declarative knowledge into movement

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Which system responsible for sequencing and timing via external cues and explicit instructions

premotor cortex

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Damage to hippocampus and medial temporal cortex has what effect?

decrease ability to form declarative knowledge, have ability for procedural learning

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As skill of task or movement increases -- ___ areas of the brain are activated

fewer

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What is the impact of declarative instructions on motor learning?

can harm motor learning

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The process of neuromodifiability (parallels learning)

neuroplasticity

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How does neuroplasticity occur at the network level and intercellular level?

network - changes in pattern of neural activation

intercellular - changes between neurons and synapses

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What is the 2 step mechanism underlying both LTP and LTD?

synaptic plasticity (modifying strength of synapse) and anatomical plasticity (modifying circuits through dendritic sprouting)

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Describe use it or lose it

failure to do specific functions can lead to a loss of function

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Describe use it and improve it

training of specific function leads to enhance function

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What is specificity principle?

nature of the training experiences dictates the nature of plasticity

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What is the repetition matters principle?

induction of plasticity requires sufficient repetition

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What is intensity matters principle?

plasticity requires sufficient training intensity

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What is the time matters principle?

different forms of plasticity occur at different times during training (neurons that fire synchronously will adopt a stronger connection)

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What is the salience matters principle

training must be salient/important to induce plasticity

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What is the one principle of neuroplasticity that we cannot change?

Age - training induced plasticity occurs more readily in the younger brain

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What is transference?

Plasticity in response to one training experience can enhance the acquisition of similar behaviors

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What is interference?

plasticity in experience can degrade acquisition of behavior

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What is restorative neuroplasticity? How does this occur?

resolution of a temporary change in function - recovery of injured neural tissue or nearby neural tissue take over identical function

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T/F: restorative neuroplasticity has a significant change in cortical organization

false - no significant change

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What is compensatory neuroplasticity?

completely different neural circuits enable recovery (change in cortical representation)

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What is force-used paradigms?

practicing the way you want to perform correctly

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What is the difference between functional enabling and functional disabling?

enabling: changes associated with force-used paradigms to improve motor function

disabling: changes in representation associated with disuse or bad practice

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Phantom limb sensation is an example of what kind of neuroplasticiy?

compensatory - functional disabling (maladaptive)

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What is cortical re-organization?

re-organization of map due to change in behavioral input to cortex

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What are three methods used to measure neuroplasticity via cortical mapping?

intracranial cortical recording, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional imaging (fMRI)

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What kind of practice is essential in minimizing disuse and maladaptive neuroplasaticity?

early active task-specific practice

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Excessive vigorous rehab of motor recovery too soon after injury may contribute to ______

excitotoxicity

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This theory considers a social-cognitive-affective-motor nature of "motor" behavior

optimal theory

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What are the three components of OPTIMAL theory? Which are motivational versus attention factors?

motivational - enhanced expectancies, autonomy

attention - external focus of attention

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In what manner should positive feedback be given?

provide when performed well, ignore unsuccessful performances

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Enhanced expectations are _______

not motivationally neutral

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How could we clinically enhance expectations for a patient?

set up practice conditions that enhance learners' performance expectancies

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What is social-comparative feedback?

provide learner with normative information to reduce concern and increase motivation to learn

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In what way could you perform self-modeling feedback?

edited video feedback to show learners' best performance

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What is the idea of perceived task difficulty?

setting criteria to indicate good performance while keeping the criteria reachable

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What is our goal as clinicians when discussing the concept of "conceptions of ability"

To change someones view of their abilities to be amenable to change with practice (not a fixed capacity)

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A concept that enhances motivation/performance effectiveness via rewards/punishments (rarely used clinically)

extrinsic rewards

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Positive affect is expected to accompany what situations?

They accompany experiences that produce enhanced performance expectancies/similar outcomes

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What is the idea of autonomy?

Allowing the individual to exercise control over the environment

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What are some words you could use to employ autonomy supportive language?

saying may instead of must

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What way could be a method to utilize learner autonomy if you have a patient with an assistive device learning to ambulate?

let the patient choose when they want to use that device

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Explain the idea of incidental choices?

Allowing learners to chose the extent of the spacing of practice trials

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Knowledge of performance directs someone to internal focus or external focus

internal focus

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What is external focus of attention?

instructions directing attention away from one's body parts or self and to the intended movement effect

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What is the difference between the movement effectiveness and movement efficiency?

effectiveness - achieving the goal of the movement

efficiency - same movement with less energy expenditure

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What is the impact of an external focus of attention on automaticity?

increases

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All sensory information that is available as the result of a movement that a person has produced

feedback

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Feedback that comes to the individual through various sensory systems as the result of the production of movement/posture

Intrinsic feedback

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What body systems are involved in forward feedback?

vision, seeing before a movement

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What is the difference between knowledge of results and knowledge of performance augmented feedback? (extrinsic)

KR - feedback about outcome of movement (gait speed)

KP - feedback about characteristics of movement (bending knee more during gait)

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What are some negative impacts of extrinsic feedback?

reduces self error detection, increases dpendency

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KR or KP: Tighten your abs more

KP

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KR or KP: you completed 5 reps in 8 seconds

KR

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What is concurrent versus immediate augmented feedback?

concurrent - during task performance

immediate - right after performance

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Is concurrent or delayed feedback more effective for motor learning?

delayed

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What is the timing for delayed augmented feedback?

wait 2-5 seconds after movement, give feedback, ensure 2-5 more seconds after feedback before performing movement

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Delayed feedback about trials after a series of trials

Summary feedback

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What is the relationship between complexity of a task and the number of trials summarized before feedback?

simpler tasks, more trials before summarized feedback. The more complex a task gets, the less trials before summarized feedback

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