TEST #2 SKILLS

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pathogen transmission cycle (5)

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38 Terms

1

pathogen transmission cycle (5)

reservoir, exit, transmission, infection, susception

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2

standard precautions (6)

barriers, hand hygiene, sharps, soiled patient care equipment, respiratory hygiene, misc

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3

types of transmissions (4)

contact, airborne, droplet, vector

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4

contact precautions (and which diseases)

gown and gloves (no mask)

-MRSA, C diff, lice, scabies, impetigo

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5

droplet precautions (and which diseases)

mask only

-mumps, meningitis, strep A (for strep A use gown and gloves if lesions are present)

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6

airborne precautions (and which disease)

mask only

-TB, measles

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7

vector precautions (and which diseases)

(airborne plus contact) mask, gown, and gloves

-chickenpox, herpes zoster, COVID

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8

when should hand hygiene should be performed?

-before and after all patient contact -after sneezing, coughing, nose blowing -before/after removing gloves -before/after eating

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9

how long should you wash your hands?

30 seconds, longer if you've come in contact with body fluids or wounds

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10

order of PPE application (donning)

gown, mask, glasses, gloves

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11

order of PPE application (doffing)

gloves, glasses, gown, mask

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12

when should vital signs be taken?

while patient is at rest

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13

what can affect vital signs?

physical activity, temperature outside, age, emotional status, if a disease or illness is present

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14

normal pulse range

60-100 beats

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15

normal body temp

96.8 - 99.3 degrees F (98.6 being the average)

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16

normal blood pressure

120/80 or less

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17

normal oxygen (O2) saturation

95% - 100%

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18

blood pressure: top number is called ? bottom number is called?

systolic, diastolic

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19

how is pain assessed?

-describe the pain (dull, sharp, burning, deep) -assess the pain (onset, pattern, location, radiates or spreads, scale of 1-10)

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20

where is the most common body parts to take pulse? (2)

radial and carotid arteries

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21

where is the most common body part to take body temp? where is the most accurate body part for body temp?

-mouth -rectum

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22

what is hypertension?

high blood pressure, above 140/90

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23

what is hypotension?

low blood pressure, below 90/60

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24

what is the Valsalva phenomenon?

a way of breathing that builds up pressure in the chest, which increases blood pressure and decreases heart rate -plug your nose and close your mouth and breathe out really hard

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25

what can happen from the Valsalva maneuver?

-CVA (stroke) or death

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26

how do we drape patients?

with only the treated area or body part exposed

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27

bony prominences in supine position

occipital tuberosity, spine of scapula, inferior angle of scapula, vertebral spinous process, sacrum, medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, greater trochanter, head of fibula, posterior calcaneus, lateral malleolus (if in external hip rotation)

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28

body prominences in side-lying

lateral ear, lateral ribs, lateral acromion process, lateral head of humerus, medial or lateral epicondyle of humerus, greater trochanter, medial and lateral condyle of femur, lateral malleolus, fifth metatarsal

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29

when should a red area of skin return to normal?

within an hour

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30

rationale for proper positioning

-prevents soft tissue injury -provides comfort -provides support/stability -provides access/exposure to areas that need to be treated -promotes efficient function -relieves pressure

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31

examples of restraints

-wrist/ankle straps -tightly wrapped bed sheet that constrains upper/lower extremities -straight jacket -bed rails

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32

how long should you position a patient for?

no more than 30 min

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33

precautions with positioning

-avoid clothing/linen folds underneath patient -observe skin color of bony prominences -protect bony prominences -avoid placing extremities off of the bed -use caution when positioning patients who are confused, mentally incompetent, comatose, or paralyzed

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34

rationale for draping

-provides modesty -helps maintain comfortable body temp -provides exposure to area that needs to be treated -protects patient's skin/clothes from being damaged

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35

how much work is the patient doing in minimum assist, moderate assist and maximum assist?

-min A - 75% -mod A - 50% -max A - 25%

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36

NWB is what?

non-weight bearing

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37

PWB is what?

partial weight bearing

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38

FWB is what?

full weight bearing

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