Unit 3: BIO111 SRU

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Plant

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Plant

Diverse, fascinating organisms

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Protist

All eukaryotes except land plants, fungi, and animals

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Cuticle

waxy layer to resist drying

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Sporangia

spore producing structure

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Fruit

mature ripened ovary along with seeds and associated structures

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Pollen

sperm-producing gametophyte with protective coating

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Seeds

reproductive structure with nutritious and hard covering

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Homospory

gametophytes can produce both sperm and egg

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Heterospory

gametophytes produce separate sperm and egg

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Microsporangia

makes sperm

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Megasporangia

makes eggs

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Ulvophyceae

marine; alternation of generations only in multicellular species; Important primary producers in freshwater environments and in coastal areas of ocean

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Charophyceae

freshwater; eggs are retained on the parent and nourished after fertilization

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Hepaticophyta

Liverworts; some have liver-shaped leaves; many have pores similar to stomata; thought to resemble first land plants; their decaying tissues contribute to initial stages of soil formation

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Bryophyta

Mosses; some able to withstand extreme drying; a sporophyte can produce 50 million spores; partially decayed mosses from large patches of peat; which is used as fuel for cooking

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Lycophytes

Club mosses

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Non-Vascular plants

no vascular tissue; use spores for reproduction and dispersal

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Stomata (stoma)

openings that allow gas exchange because the cuticle is impervious to gases

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Carboniferous period

most fossils from seedless vascular plants

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Zygnematophyceae

the closest living relative to land plants

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Mitosis

cell division

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Meiosis

reduction division

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Haploid

1 copy of each chromosome

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Diploid

2 copies of each chromosome

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Sporophyte

produces haploid spores(meiosis)

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Spores

germinate and develop into multicellular haploid gametophyte (mitosis)

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Gametophytes

produce haploid gametes (mitosis)

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Angiosperms

flowering plants; flowers have stamen containing anthers (microsporangia develop); carpel containing ovary (megasporangia develop)

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Green plants

Green algae and land plants; also known as viridiplantae

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Microsporangia

develop into sperm producing gametophytes

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Megasporangia

develop egg producing gametophytes

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Antheridia

sperm-producing

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Archegonia

egg-producing

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Monocots

monophyletic grouping of flowering plants with parallel veins; petals in multiples of 3; vascular tissue throughout; and one cotyledon; contains grasses

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Eudicots

“true dicots”; monophyletic grouping of flowering plants with branching veins; petals in multiples of 4 or 5; vascular tissue on the edges; and two cotyledons; contains roses

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Mitosis

one cell splits and produces two genetically identical daughter cells

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Hyphae

long narrow filament of mycelium; pores allow materials to flow between compartments

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Septa

division of filaments into cells (fungi)

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Coenocytic

fungi that lack septa

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Mutualistic relationship

relationship that benefits both species

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Parasitic relationship

one species benefits at the expense of the other

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Commensal relationship

benefits one species while the other is unaffected

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Ectomycorrhizal fungi

fungi that live in close association with plant roots

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Zygosporangia

distinctive spore-producing structures of Zygomycetes

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Basidia

“club fungi” specialized club-like cells at the end of the hyphae

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Primary production

supports virtually all other life on earth

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Sporophyte

part of the plant that produces haploid spores through meiosis and has 2 sets of chromosomes

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Spores

reproductive structure coated in sporopollenin (land plants)

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Gametophytes

Plants that produce haploid gametes through mitosis and have 1 set of chromosomes

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Pollen Grain

tiny sperm-producing gametophyte with protective coating

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Seed

portable embryo with nutrients surrounded by a tough coat; allows for dispersal

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Homospory

production of a single type of spore resulting in a gametophyte that can produce both sperm and eggs

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Heterospory

production of two types of spores producing structures resulting in gametophytes that produce eggs and sperm separately

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Zygote

a fused egg and sperm

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Triploid

product of one sperm fusing with two nuclei off egg producing gametophytes; 3 copies of a chromosomes; in angiosperms this process leads to the endosperm

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Microspores

sperm cells

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Megaspores

egg cells

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Fungi

Eukaryotes; grow as unicellular or multicellular; important decomposers; share mutualistic relationships with plants

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Yeast; Unicellular fungi

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Mycelia

Multicellular fungi

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Saprophytic Fungi

Responsible for losses due to food spoilage; includes molds rusts wilts and blights

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Zygosporangia

spore producing structures formed when hyphae are yoked (zygomycete)

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Basidia

club-shaped cells where meiosis occurs; forms 4 spores (basidiomycetes)

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Asci

sac-like cells where meiosis and one round of mitosis occur; forms 8 spores (ascomycetes)

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Hyphae

long narrow filaments of mycelium

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Septa

what divide filaments into cells; cross walls

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Coenocytic

fungi that lack septa

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Mycorrhizal fungi

fungi that live in close association with plant roots

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Mycorrhiza

symbiosis between a fungus and plant

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