The Rise & Spread of Islam

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The Arabian Peninsula

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1

The Arabian Peninsula

This is a part of southwestern Asia. Its deserts and trade centers helped shape the early life of Muhammad and it’s mostly desert, but contains oasis; or fertile areas in a desert.

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2

Muhammad

The final and greatest prophet of Allah. He is considered to be the founder of Islam. A merchant earlier in his life, he was chosen to deliver the word of Allah when he received a message from Allah through the archangel Gabriel.

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3

Allah

The term for God in arabic. Muslims must declare their faith to only one God (a monotheistic religion).

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4

Mecca

The birthplace of Muhammad. It is the location Muhammad first began to spread the word of Allah.

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5

The Hijrah

Turning point of Islam, where Muhammad and followers took a long journey out of Mecca to Yathrib, which was renamed,”City of the prophet”.

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6

The five pillars of Islam

Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, and Hajj

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7

Muezzins

These are the calls to pray that are made at the top of the minarets.

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8

Minaret

tall pillar structures where people would pray- people pray at a different one each time they pray during a day

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9

Ramadan

Month varies each year where muslims do not eat and fast from sunrise to sundown.

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10

Pilgrimage

**(**This is a big journey for religious reasons, like Muhammad’s trek to Mecca to conquer it) and it is an opportunity for rebirth to one's religion. For them, this was the journey to Mecca to get there, as well as once they do once they reach Mecca, specifically the Kabba.

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11

Kaaba

This is the structure that muslims believe to be built by Abraham. 1st house of worship ever built to god. This is what people face when they pray. This is also where one makes the pilgrimage to Mecca. 1st place where Muhammad received revelations(direct message from god) from God.

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12

Shahada

Declaration of faith in one god

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13

Salat

Face Mecca

Daily Prayers

Called by Muezzins

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14

Zakat

Charity to the poor

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15

Sawm

Fasting during Ramadan

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16

Hajj

Pilgrimage to mecca

Visit the kaaba

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17

Koran (Qur’an)

This is the book that revelations Muhammed received

from Gabriel is kept in. It is the holy book of the muslims. It teaches

about Allah, and how he is powerful and compassionate, as well as

how people are responsible for their actions.

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18

Arabic

This is what the Quran is written in, and the muslims consider only the Arabic version to be the true version. Arabic is the language and literature for muslims. It became the language of worshippers and scholars. This language also helped unite conquered people as muslim control expanded.

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19

“People of the Book”

Muslims refer to Jews and Christians as people of the book, because both of those religions have a holy book in which they pray to and have for the basis of their religion. To muslims, people of the book are spiritually superior to those who believe in polytheistic ideas. Therefore, Sharia law requires and influences muslims to be tolerant towards Jews as well as Christians.

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20

The dome of the rock

This is located in Jerusalem and is the earliest surviving muslim monument. It was completed in 691 and the complex that it is a part of is the third most holy place in islam. It is on Mount Moriah where the Jewish temple was originally knocked down by the Romans.

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21

The 3 C’s

Commerce, conquest, conversion- all ways that Islam spread

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22

Other factors

Christains and Jews were a big part of it, or the “people of the book”

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23

Caliph

This is a successor of Muhammad. It ended up being Abu Bakr after Muhammad, in favor of Sunnis.

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24

Reasons for victory/ why did Arabs have so many victories

  • Oppressive neighbors nearby had grown weak- Byzantine and Persian Empires had grown weak due to constant war with each other

    • They were oppressive rulers too!

  • Superior military tactics- the use of Bedouin camels and horse cavalries overwhelmed traditional fighting methods of standard armies

  • Islam helped knit a patchwork of tribes into a unified state

  • A belief in Islam and certainty of reaching paradise if one fell in battle

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The treatment of the conquered people

Islam was mostly tolerant for those who were conquered. Some rulers at the start would have tax on non-muslims, but they were mostly tolerant. They allowed Christinas, Jews, and Zoroastrians to practice their own faiths and follow their own laws. Jews and Christians started to play big roles as doctors, officials and translators as it civilized more.

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26

Sunni/Shiite

Shiites believed that Muhammad had made his son in law Ali the next successor, while Sunnis thought that Abu Bakr (close friend of Muhammad) should be the next successor. Around 85% of muslims are sunni, 15% shiite. Abu Bakr ended up being the successor next.

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27

Jihad

This was the struggle in God's service, or almost like a goal for some Muslims. It is called the “unofficial 6th pillar of Islam” and many people have their own interpretations of what it is. Some believe it is an individual’s personal jihad to overcome their own immorality, and others believe in violence or to engage in warfare against non-believers.

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28

Mosque

The house of worship for Muslims.

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29

Sharia Law

This is a code of Islamic laws that are based on Sharia and applied to everyday life. Interpretations of it differ but it guides religious and secular life. It helps guide families together and is based on govt, crime, etc. This regulates family life, business practices, and more. It helped unite people who converted to Islam. It does not separate religious matters from criminal or civil law.

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30

Islam and women

Spiritually equal to men helps women gain greater position in the region. In society roles and treatment of men and women depend on the region. Arabs would adopt attitudes about women from those conquered, for example discrimination from the Persians and Byzantines. Law even stated women must have a share of parents or husband's property. However, the amount of inheritance given was less to a daughter than a son. It was harder for women to get a divorce than for  a man.

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Art and literature

Used many artistic techniques, like calligraphy and arabesque. Arabesque is the design for floral shapes made of curved lines that is used in things like rugs, textiles, and glassware. Calligraphy was the art of perfect handwriting and things like this were used because muslim religious leaders refused artists to portray god or human figures. The work of Islamic literature was the poetic Quran itself. Muslim art reflected traditions of people who lived under Muslim rule and Muslim artists were influenced by skills and styles of people.

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Centers of learning and philosophy

Boys and girls were both provided with educational opportunities and they were taught to read, write, and study the Quran. Baghdad became a Muslim center of learning due to its many libraries attracting many scholars. Other cities contained different types of learning that furthered math, medicine, philosophy and more. They preserved learning of earlier civilizations by translating ancient Persina, Sanskrit, and Greek texts into Arabic.

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33

Mathematics

Muslim scholars studied Indian and Greek mathematics and then started adding their own touches to it, and the greatest Muslim mathematician was al-Khwarizmi. Al Khwarizmi wrote a book that was translated to latin and became a standard math textbook in Europe. He studied algebra.

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34

Medicine

Muslim surgeons found a way to treat cataracts, where they would draw fluid out the lenses with hollow needles. Arab pharmacists were the first to mix bitter medicines into sweet tasting syrups and gums. Physicians and Pharmacists had to pass tests before they could advance their profession, and the government set hospitals up. People could get seen quickly like emergency rooms today. Muhammad Al- Razi was a head physician at Baghdad's chief hospital. He wrote books, and studied measles and smallpox. Ibn Sina was a doctor by 16 and was in a book called Canon on Medicine with Greek Arab and his work.

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35

Knowledge moves west

Muslim scholars helped knowledge move into Christian Europe. These were mostly through Spain and Sicily. Christina European scholars were introduced to the achievements of Greco-Roman civilization. They studied muslim science and philosophy and started attending Muslim Universities in Spain to translate Arabic texts.

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