Pharmacology Ch. 12 Review

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  1. Blood coagulates to form a blood clot through a complex series of steps involving all of the following substances, EXCEPT ________.

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  1. Blood coagulates to form a blood clot through a complex series of steps involving all of the following substances, EXCEPT ________.

white blood cells

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  1. Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) is ________.

measured in mg, given orally and IV

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  1. ________ drugs bind to fibrin strands in the clot, convert plasminogen in the clot to plasmin (fibrinolysin), an enzyme that breaks apart fibrin and the clot.

Platelet aggregation inhibitor

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  1. The formation of many clotting factors is dependent on the presence of ________.

vitamin K

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  1. Heparin is composed of large molecules that are not easily absorbed. Only about ________ of a dose actually exerts a therapeutic effect.

20 to 30 percent

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  1. Heparin is always measured in ________.

units

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  1. While she was in the hospital, Renee Waters was receiving subcutaneous heparin administered by a nurse. Now that she is being discharged home, the physician has switched her to what other drug?

an oral anticoagulant drug

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  1. Some platelet aggregation inhibitor drugs block a receptor (glycoprotein IIb/IIIA) on platelets, and this prevents fibrinogen (clotting factor I) from binding to ________.

its receptor

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  1. One cause of anemia is due to a decrease in the ________ in the blood.

number of red blood cells

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  1. Anticoagulant drugs are used to ________ a blood clot.

prevent

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  1. The first prescription anticoagulant drug available was ________.

heparin

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  1. The platelet aggregation inhibitor drug dipyridamole (Persantine) is given along with other anticoagulant drugs to prevent platelets from ________.

adhering to artificial heart valves

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  1. Cathflo Activase is used to ________.

break up a clot that has formed in a central venous catheter or intravenous line

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  1. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) drugs are given at the time of a ________ to dissolve a blood clot that has already formed.

myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism

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  1. Anemia can be due to insufficient amounts of all of the following, EXCEPT ________.

thrombin

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  1. Which of the following statements about protamine sulfate are TRUE?

Protamine sulfate is used to treat a heparin overdose.

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  1. All of the following drugs are able to dissolve a blood clot, EXCEPT ________.

darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)

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  1. Hemophiliac patients are given ________.

units of whole blood, blood products (plasma, packed RBCs), clotting factors

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  1. All of the following are platelet aggregation inhibitor drugs, EXCEPT ________.

apixaban (Eliquis)

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  1. All of the generic drugs that have ________ or iron in their name are iron supplements that are used to treat iron deficiency anemia.

ferrous

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  1. The ending ________ is common to generic name heparin and low molecular weight heparin drugs.

-parin

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  1. Hemophilia A is ________.

the most common type of hemophilia and caused by the lack of clotting factor VIII

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  1. Which of the following statements about low molecular weight heparins is FALSE?

Low molecular weight heparins have a larger molecular size than heparin.

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  1. All of the following anticoagulant drugs can be given orally EXCEPT ________.

heparin

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  1. Patients taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) for long-term anticoagulant drug therapy need to be sure they do not eat too much of which kinds of foods?

leafy green vegetables, beef liver, soy products

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  1. All of the following are thrombin inhibitor drugs, EXCEPT ________.

apixaban (Eliquis)

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  1. Which of the following is true of phytonadione (Mephyton)?

It is a vitamin K drug, used to treat anticoagulant overdose, and prevent hemorrhagic disease of newborns

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  1. All of the following are low molecular weight heparin drugs, EXCEPT ________.

heparin

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  1. Anemia can be caused by all of the following, EXCEPT ________.

a lack of vitamin K

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  1. Which of the following is an example of the drug effect of antagonism?

taking an anticoagulant drug with a meal of leafy green vegetables

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  1. A platelet aggregation inhibitor drug would be given in all of the following situations, EXCEPT ________.

to prevent hemorrhagic disease after a newborn's birth

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  1. In the drugs ferrous fumarate (Ferro-Sequels and ferrous gluconate (Fergon), the word ferrous tells you that these drugs contain ________.

iron

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  1. The abbreviation LMWH is associated with the drug ________.

heparin

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  1. The generic platelet aggregation inhibitor drug clopidogrel is related to the well-known trade name drug ________.

Plavix

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  1. Besides being an antiplatelet drug, aspirin has other effects that include ________.

relieving pain, reducing fever and inflammation

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(T/F) The liver produces clotting factors I through VIII.

F

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(T/F) Heparin inhibits clotting factor X in the liver, which stops the series of steps needed to form a blood clot.

T

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(T/F) Heparin can only be given subcutaneously or intravenously.

T

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(T/F) Platelet aggregation inhibitor drugs prevent platelets from binding to the site of injury or from clumping together to begin the formation of a clot.

T

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(T/F) Platelet aggregation inhibitor drugs are classified under the larger category of anticoagulant drugs.

T

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(T/F) Thrombin inhibitor drugs bind to receptors on both circulating thrombin and thrombin already incorporated in a blood clot.

T

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(T/F) Factor Xa inhibitor drugs exert their main effect on thrombin or platelets.

T

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(T/F) Anticoagulant drugs can prevent blood clots from forming, prevent blood clots from enlarging, and are effective in dissolving blood clots once they have formed.

F

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(T/F) Protamine sulfate, a heparin antagonist drug, is used to treat heparin overdose or to reverse the effect of heparin given during surgery.

T

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(T/F) Hemophilia is an inherited genetic abnormality that causes a deficiency of a specific clotting factor.

T

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(T/F) The drug Coagulin-B is the actual cellular gene that directs the liver to produce clotting factor IX.

T

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(T/F) The anticoagulant drug warfarin blocks vitamin C to keep the liver from producing clotting factors.

F

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(T/F) Thrombolytic enzyme drugs revolutionized the treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke because they were the first drugs that could actually dissolve a clot.

T

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(T/F) Darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa, and epoetin beta are erythropoietin-like drugs created with recombinant DNA technology.

T

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(T/F) The anticoagulant drug warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) can dissolve clots that have already formed.

F

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(T/F) A saline or heparin lock is a device that provides immediate intravenous access for administering intravenous drugs without the need to have intravenous fluids running continuously.

T

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(T/F) Factor Xa inhibitor drugs are used to prevent blood clots in patients undergoing joint replacement surgery or abdominal surgery.

T

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(T/F) Anticoagulant drugs are given during hemodialysis for patients with chronic kidney failure.

T

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(T/F) Aspirin prolongs the clotting time by inhibiting thromboxane, a substance in the blood that causes platelet aggregation.

T

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  1. Platelets stick to damaged tissue to form clumps, and this process is known as platelet __________.

aggregation

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  1. The ending _____ (which means enzyme) is common to both the generic and trade names of thrombolytic drugs.

-ase

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  1. The tPA drugs can _______ (break apart) a blood clot once it has formed.

dissolve

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  1. The chemical symbol for iron is _____.

Fe

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  1. The abbreviation DVT stands for _______________.

deep vein thrombosis

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  1. The abbreviation tPA stands for _____________.

tissue plasminogen activator

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  1. Anemia is a decrease in the number of ___ blood cells (erythrocytes).

red

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  1. The ending ______ is common to generic thrombin inhibitor drugs.

-rudin

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  1. A drug-food interaction in which the food decreases the therapeutic effect of the drug is known as _______.

antagonism

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  1. The most well-known antiplatelet drug that is inexpensive and can be purchased over-the-counter is the drug _________.

aspirin

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clopidogrel (Plavix)

platelet aggregation inhibitor drug

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ferrous sulfate

over-the-counter iron supplement

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Aggrenox

combination aspirin and platelet aggregation inhibitor drug

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bivalirudin (Angiomax)

thrombin inhibitor drug

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Coumadin

warfarin

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enoxaparin (Lovenox)

low molecular weight heparin drug

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epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)

erythropoietin-like drug for anemia

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fondaparinux (Arixtra)

factor Xa inhibitor drug

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reteplase (Retavase)

tissue plasminogen activator drug

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factor VIIa (NovoSeven)

drug used to treat hemophilia

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