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1

isotope

same proton diff neutron

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2

strong nuclear force (snf)

counteract electrostatic repulsion and acts on neutrons in small range

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3

unstable

too many p n pn

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4

alpha decay

too many p n

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5

beta minus

too many n â†’ proton electron antineutrino

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6

neutrinos

conserve momentum

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7

antiparticle

same rest energy and mass diff everything else

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8

photon

packets of em radiation that transfer energy but no mass

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9

annihilation

particle antiparticle collide releasing 2 photons in opposite directions

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10

use of annihilation

pet scans release positron in body detect gamma photons

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11

pair production

photon converted into matter and antimatter if ephoton > rest ebothparticles

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12

exchange particles

carry energy and momentum between force experiencing particles

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13

weak force

wbosons 3Ă—10-18 all particles

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14

weak force

wbosons 3Ă—10-18 all particles

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15

electromagnetic

virtual photons infinite charged particles

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16

weak nuclear force (wnf) interactions

beta decay electron capture proton electron collision

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17

electron capture

when particle has too many p p + inner electron â†’ neutron and neutrino

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18

Beta plus decay

proton â†’ neutron + positron + neutrino

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19

beta plus decay

proton â†’ neutron + positron + neutrino

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20

beta minus decay

neutron â†’ proton +electron +anti neutrino

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21

photoelectric effect

photoelectrons emitted from a metals surface after a light above a certain frequency is shone onto it

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22

what does photoelectric effect prove

light is a particle

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23

working function

min energy for electron to be emitted from metal surface

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24

stopping potential

pd to apply across metal to stop photoelectrons with ekmax

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25

what is the use of stopping potential

find ekmax of released photoelectrons

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26

excitation

electrons move up a discrete energy level after gaining energy

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27

ionisation

the electron is removed from the atom if eelectron>eionisation

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28

after excitation

electron returns to original level and energy is released as a photon if e = energy level difference

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29

flourescent tube

low pressure mercury vapour â†’ electron collide with atoms â†’excite mercury atomsâ†’ dexcite uv photonsâ†’ excite tube coating â†’dexcite releasing visible light photons

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30

1eV

energy gained by 1 electron when passed through a pd of 1V

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31

line spectrum

after light through diffraction grating each line diff wavelength of light

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32

line absorption spectrum

continuous spectrum with black lines at wavelengths

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33

light as particle

photoelectric effect

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34

light as wave

diffraction

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35

momentum changes

changes amount of diffraction

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36

leptons

fundemental dont experice snf

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37

hadrons

made of quarks

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38

baryons

3 quarks

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39

quark composition of protons

uud

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40

quark composition of neutrons

udd

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41

mesons

quark antiquark pair

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42

proton

only stable baryon

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43

strange particles

produced by snf decay by wnf

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44

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