BI 221 Final

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

cell cycle

1 / 150

Tags and Description

Help

151 Terms

1

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

New cards
2

G1 checkpoint

Checks the surroundings to make sure the conditions are favorable and the cell is healthy enough to enter the next stage

New cards
3

G2 checkpoint

The cell checks to make sure the DNA is copied correctly

New cards
4

M checkpoint

Spindle assembly checkpoint. Mitosis will not continue if chromosomes are not properly aligned.

New cards
5

benign tumor

A mass of abnormal cells with specific genetic and cellular changes such that the cells are not capable of surviving at a new site and generally remain at the site of the tumor's origin.

New cards
6

malignant tumor

An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor.

New cards
7

metastasis

spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body

New cards
8

Proto-oncogenes

normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes, they promote growth.

New cards
9

Oncogenes

mutated forms of proto-oncogenes that cause normal cells to grow out of control and become cancer cells

New cards
10

tumor suppressor genes

A gene whose protein product inhibits cell division, thereby preventing the uncontrolled cell growth that contributes to cancer.

New cards
11

Purine

a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine

New cards
12

Pyrimidines

a nitrogenous base that only has a single ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either thymine, cytosine, or uracil

New cards
13

Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

New cards
14

DNA backbone

5' to 3' phosphodiester bonds form phosphate backbone

New cards
15

phosphodiester bond

the type of bond that links the nucleotides in DNA or RNA. joins the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the hydroxyl group on the sugar of another nucleotide

New cards
16

semi-conservative replication

in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new

New cards
17

conservative replication

Conservative replication is a theoretical method of replication where the original strands of DNA are left intact and two new strands are formed bonded together.

New cards
18

dispersive replication

a disproved model of DNA synthesis suggesting more or less random interspersion of parental and new segments in daughter DNA molecules

New cards
19

Primase

An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.

New cards
20

single strand binding proteins

bind to the unpaired DNA strands, keeping them from re-pairing

New cards
21

Topoisomerase

Enzyme that functions in DNA replication, helping to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.

New cards
22

DNA polymerase III

synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

New cards
23

DNA polymerase I

removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA

New cards
24

DNA ligase

an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments

New cards
25

Helicase

An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.

New cards
26

Okazaki fragments

Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.

New cards
27

nucleotide triphosphate

New cards
28

origin of replication

Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.

New cards
29

replication fork

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

New cards
30

Centromere

Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

New cards
31

Euchromatin

The less condensed form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.

New cards
32

Heterochromatin

Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compacted during interphase and is generally not transcribed.

New cards
33

Histones

protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

New cards
34

Gamates

reproductive cells

New cards
35

chromosome number

The total number of chromosomes in a cell of a given species.

New cards
36

Karyotype

A display of the homologous chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

New cards
37

somatic cells

body cells

New cards
38

Ploidy

number of sets of chromosomes in a cell

New cards
39

homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis.

New cards
40

Haploid

having a half set of chromosomes

New cards
41

Diploid

2 sets of chromosomes

New cards
42

asexual reproduction

A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.

New cards
43

sexual reproduction

Process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.

New cards
44

Fertilization

Fusion of an egg and sperm cell

New cards
45

crossing over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

New cards
46

chiasmata

site of crossing over

New cards
47

synapsis

the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.

New cards
48

Recombination

the genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division

New cards
49

law of independent assortment

Each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

New cards
50

recombinant chromosomes

A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.

New cards
51

Allele

An alternative form of a gene.

New cards
52

dihybrid cross

Cross or mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits

New cards
53

Law of Dominance

In many traits one allele is dominant over the other allele. The "weaker recessive" allele is only expressed when it is paired with another recessive allele

New cards
54

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

New cards
55

Phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

New cards
56

Heterozygous

An organism that has two different alleles for a trait

New cards
57

Homozygous

An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait

New cards
58

Law of Segregation

Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete

New cards
59

locus

Location of a gene on a chromosome

New cards
60

monohybrid cross

A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

New cards
61

P generation

parent generation

New cards
62

F1 generation

the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms

New cards
63

F2 generation

the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation

New cards
64

progeny

offspring

New cards
65

testcross

cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype

New cards
66

true-breeding

term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate

New cards
67

Pedigree

A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

New cards
68

product rule of probability

The chance of two or more independent events occurring together is the product of their chance of occurring separately

New cards
69

sum rule of probability

the chance of an event that can occur in more than one way is the sum of the individual chances

New cards
70

independent events

The outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the second event

New cards
71

mutually exclusive events

events that cannot happen at the same time

New cards
72

Carrier

A person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait.

New cards
73

plieotropy

The ability of a single gene to have multiple phenotypic effects.

New cards
74

epistatis

gene at one locus on the chromosome alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at different locus

New cards
75

Co-dominance

A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two alleles in a heterozygous genotype express each phenotype of each allele fully and equally; a phenotype which would not be expressed in any other genotypic combination.

New cards
76

incomplete dominance

A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.

New cards
77

polygenic inheritance

occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait

New cards
78

heterogametic

sex chromosomes are of different types

New cards
79

homogametic

sex chromosomes are of one type

New cards
80

sex linkage

the presence of a gene on a sex chromosome

New cards
81

Autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

New cards
82

wildtype

the most common genotype/phenotype observed in a population

New cards
83

X-linked

referring to a gene located on the X chromosome

New cards
84

SRY gene

the sex determining region of the Y chromosome in males. Encodes the testis-determining factor, which turns the primordial gonads into the testes

New cards
85

sex determination

The biological mechanism that determines whether an organism will develop as a male or female

New cards
86

sex-limited traits

a characteristic controlled by autosomal genes that is phenotypically exhibited in only one of the two sexes.

New cards
87

sex-influenced traits

an autosomal trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones

New cards
88

sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

New cards
89

Nondisjunction

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

New cards
90

nondisjunction in meiosis I

4 abnormal gametes, 2 with chromosome duplicated, 2 with corresponding chromosomes missing

New cards
91

nondisjunction in meiosis II

2 normal gametes, 2 abnormal gametes

New cards
92

Aneuploidy

Abnormal number of chromosomes.

New cards
93

X inactivation

one of two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated and remains coiled as a Barr body

New cards
94

Barr body

A dense body formed from a deactivated X chromosome.

New cards
95

gene linkage

the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction

New cards
96

Trisomy

3 copies of a chromosome

New cards
97

recombinants

offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents

New cards
98

recombination frequency

the percentage of recombinant offspring among the total. (number of recombinants/total number of offsprings)x100%

New cards
99

Monosomy

Chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number

New cards
100

alternative splicing

Splicing of introns in a pre-mRNA that occurs in different ways, leading to different mRNAs that code for different proteins. Increases the diversity of proteins.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 95 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6346 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(49)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard382 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)